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Research Methods Chapter: Filipino Work Values in Education

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Education
Wordcount: 1849 words Published: 28th Sep 2017

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Chapter II


The descriptive-correlation method is utilized to describe the general characteristics of the respondents in this study and to examine the existing relationship or differences between work values, job satisfaction and work performance. This method enables the researcher to make a thorough analysis of the relationship between the indicators of FWVS, JSS and the results of the Teachers’ Efficiency Rating of the respondents.

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Specifically, descriptive method was used to define the respondents’ dominant work values, level of job satisfaction and the level of work performance according to the different indicators given in the utilized tools. Moreover, this method is also used to describe the capacity of work values to determine the future outcomes of job satisfaction and work performance. While, correlation method was utilized to delve on the relationship between the different aspects of work values and job satisfaction, and work values and work performance.


To obtain the pertinent data for this study, standardized tests and evaluation tool were utilized as the main instruments.

Standardized tests

This study utilized the Filipino Work Values Scale – Employee Edition (FWVS – EE) The Filipino Work Values Scale (FWVS) is a standardized instrument designed to determine a person’s work values. The scale consists of 80 items, distributed into 10 subscales. It takes approximately 15 to 20 minutes to accomplish it (Manual, 1987). The 10 subscales are the: Environmental, Familial, Intellectual – Achievement, Interpersonal, Management, Material, Occupation, Organization, Religious and Variety. This tool was rated using the Likert Scale Rating (1 – Very Unimportant, 2 – Unimportant, 3 – Neutral, 4 – Important and 5 – Very Important). This test consists of a test booklet where the general and specific directions were indicated, and a separate answer sheet to indicate the respondents’ answers. This test can be self – administered. The author sought for the permission of the owner of this tool which is attached in Appendix B.

To obtain the level of the job satisfaction of the participants, Job Satisfaction Survey by Paul E. Spector was used. The Job Satisfaction Survey, JSS is a 36 item, nine-facet scale to assess employee attitudes about the job and aspects of the job. The nine facets are Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Rewards, Co-workers, Nature of Work, and Communication which are rated from 1 or “Disagree very much” to 6 or “Agree very much.” Although the JSS was originally developed for use in human service organizations, it is also applicable in the education setting (Spector, 2001). The survey has an existing norm for teachers in Asian countries. This tool has been widely used and has existing local norm in the Philippines such as in the study conducted by Bansil (2010) in the study entitled “The relationship of job satisfaction and job performance of call center agents in outbound program” and Rosales and her colleagues (2013), “Nurses’ Job Satisfaction and Burnout: Is there a connection?”.The author obtained permission from the local authors who utilized JSS in their local researches for reliability and validity purposes. The copy of the letter of permission was attached in Appendix C.

Documentary Analysis

The researcher obtained and analyzes the respondents’ work performance from the institution’s previous school year’s work evaluation, Teachers’ Efficiency Rating. Efficiency Rating tool is a key component of employee development. It is intended to be a fair and balanced assessment of an employee’s performance (Claret Employee Manual, 1999).

Administration. After securing permit from the school administrators, the researcher prepared the materials which are: Filipino Work Values Scale (Employee Edition) which was obtained from the author, Dr. Vicentita Cervera, and the Job Satisfaction Survey by Paul E. Spector, which was obtained from the website and was utilized upon the approval of the author. The tests were self-administered and there was no time allotment. The instructions were indicated in the booklets and answer sheets, where the respondents can readily read the instructions and understood easily. The materials were distributed during the in-service training seminar in the Audio-Visual Room (AVR) of CSQC where all the old and newly hired teachers were required to attend. The researcher was able to obtain the target respondents.

The researcher was given 1 hour to conduct the administration of the tests. Other Guidance Counselors facilitated the distribution of the materials while the researcher explained the instructions where ten minutes was consumed. Fifteen to twenty minutes was allotted in answering the FWVS and another ten to fifteen minutes was given in answering the JSS. After each test, the Guidance Counselors collected the materials and proceeded to the inspection of answer sheets. Those answer sheets with incomplete responses and answer sheets of newly hired teachers were eliminated. A total of 109 qualified answer sheets were collected.

The checking and scoring of the accomplished FWVS and JSS answer sheets started immediately after the data gathering and this was done for one month. The encoding of responses followed by the end of July, 2014 using the SPSS version 11.5 package.


The researcher utilized the non – probability purposive sampling technique (Rosales, 2013). This method was used based on the given criteria and specifications identified by the researcher. In this technique, the researcher based on his personal judgment in selecting the participants who best meet the purposes of his study. Ariola (2006) explains that whoever qualifies and is available is taken until the desired number of sample is attained. Specifically, stakeholder sampling (Palys, 2014) is utilized, one of the kinds of purposive sampling which is useful in the context of evaluation research and analysis of the teachers’ work values, job satisfaction and work performance, who are also involved in receiving and affected by the program that is designed according to the results.


Data were computed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5). Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics included weighted mean to describe the teachers’ dominant work values difference work values, extent of job satisfaction and work performance and linear regression analysis to identify the future outcome of job satisfaction and work performance based on the dominant work values. Pearson – r coefficient of correlation was utilized to determine the correlation of variables and its significance.

Weighted Mean. The researcher utilized this computation to get the weighted mean scores of each work values to identify the extent of importance on each work values, criteria of job satisfaction and work performance, with a formula of:

∑x = N/ n

To determine the verbal interpretation of work values, this scale was used:

Mean RangeDescription

4.50 to 5.00Very Important

3.50 to 4.49Important

2.50 to 3.49Neutral

1.50 to 2.49Unimportant

1.00 to 1.49Very Unimportant

To determine the verbal interpretation of the job satisfaction, this scale was used:

Mean RangeVerbal Description

5.50 to 6.00Agree very much

4.50 to 5.49Agree moderately

3.50 to 3.49Agree slightly

2.50 to 3.49Disagree slightly

1.50 to 2.49Disagree moderately

1.00 to 1.49Disagree very much

To determine the verbal interpretation of the respondents’ work performance, this scale was utilized:

Mean RangeDescription

4.5 to 5.0Very Evident

3.5 to 4.4Evident

2.5 to 3.4Fairly Evident

1.5 to 2.4Hardly Evident

1.0 to 1.4Not Evident

Pearson – r. The Pearson – r or Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) is used in determining strength of correlation or association between two or more interval or ratio data (Ariola, 2006). This treatment was used to determine the degree and the nature of correlation between work values, job satisfaction and work performance.

To determine the degree of relationship that exists between the variables, the following scale was used:

If r =+.70 or higherVery strong positive relationship

+.40 to +.69Strong positive relationship

+.30 to +.39Moderate positive relationship

+.20 to +.29weak positive relationship

+.01 to +.19No or negligible relationship

-.01 to -.19No or negligible relationship

-.20 to -.29weak negative relationship

-.30 to -.39Moderate negative relationship

-.40 to -.69Strong negative relationship

-.70 or higherVery strong negative relationship


To determine the interpretation of the computed generated p – value in comparison with the level of significance, SPSS as used as shown on the scale below:


P-value < 0.05Reject Ho Significant

level of significance

p-value > 0.05Accept HoNot Significant

level of significance

Correlation of coefficient reveals the positive (+) or negative (-) relationship between work values (x variable) and job satisfaction or work performance criteria (y variable). Positive significant relationship explains that as the x variable increases, y variable also increases, and vice – versa. Additionally, the significance of relationship of work values was based on the ρ – value, where the computed ρ – value<0.05 level of significance to be significant.

Regression Analysis. The Regression Analysis is important in measuring the effectiveness of work value as determinant of job satisfaction and work performance. It is actually the equation of a straight line in a form of:

y = a + bx

Consequently, correlation of determination (R – square, R2) is the outcome of regression. In the study, R-square determines the future outcome of the respondents’ job satisfaction (y – intercept) and work performance (y – intercept) based on their work values (x – slope). R – square is expressed in percentage, where the highest possible variance of a variable is .1 or 100%.


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