George Orwell Nineteen Eighty Four
|✅ Paper Type: Free Essay||✅ Subject: English Literature|
|✅ Wordcount: 1540 words||✅ Published: 1st Jan 2015|
â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” was written by George Orwell, who is English political author, novelist, essayist, critic and journalist. He wrote many political essays,fiction, polemical journalism, literary criticism and poetry. Most of his novels,memoirs and essays had a political content and expressed by against imperialism, capitalism,middle class, narrow mindedness, euphemistic and inelegant English.
He was critic of imperialism, fascism, Stalinism and capitalism. His works are concerned with the sociopolitical conditions of his time, notably with the problem of human freedom. His work is considered on intelligence and wit, social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism ,passion for clarity in language and a belief in democratic socialism.
Orwell’s novels portray a sensitive , emotionally isolated individual with an oppressive or dishonest social environment. His most famous novels are â€ž Animal Farm” and for his description of modern dystopia in â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”.
â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell and first published by Secker and Warburg in 1949. The book tells the story of Winston Smith and his attempt to rebel against the totalitarian state in which he lives. â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” is a novel describing dehumanization of humanity in a mechanistic, totalitarian world.
This novel is a cautionary tale against totalitarianism and in particular the revolution to defend or support it. Orwell had his distrust of totalitarianism and the betrayal of revolutions, at points, the individual freedom that is lost in â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”.
The world of â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” reflects various aspects of the social and political life both United Kingdom and United States of America. Orwell is reported to have said that the book described what he viewed as the situation in United Kingdom in 1948, when the British economy was poor, the British Empire was dissolving at the same time as newsparers were reporting this truimph ‘ Eurasia is the enemy. Eurasia has always been the enemy’. In many ways, Oceania is a future transformation of the British Empire.
Orwell is stated that geographically it also includes the United States. As it suggests about the power.
The novel focuses on Winston Smith, who stands alone, against the corrupted reality of his world. Although the story could be described in three parts, the first part deals with the world of â€ž Nneteen Eighty Four”, the second part deals with the Winston’s forbidden sexual relationship with Julia and he is against the Party and the third part deals with Winston’s capture and torture by the Party.
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The world of Nineteen Eighty Four described about the Stalinist Soviet Union and Hitler’s Nazy Germany. There are thematically similaries: the revolution the individuals to the Party , the distinction between the inner Party and the outer Party and everyone else. There are also activities within the society such as Big Brother , who can compared to dictators like Stalin and Hitler, ‘ Thought Police’ ,who are controll over the thoughts of population. The â€ž Thought Police’ have telescreens in every house and public area, as wel as hidden microphones through to catch thought criminals against to the Party, ‘The Ministry of Truth’, which controll over all media, ‘ The Ministry of Love’, where they are tortured and executed int he room 101, the most feared worst room.
Orwell suggested that Big Brother has never existed because ‘ Big Brother’ is an all seeing, all knowing figure from which ruling classes derived their ultimate authority.
He also described in â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” his own vision and hope of Socialism, such as he had hopes in t he possibility of a Socialist revolution in Britain , this meant he considered it through socialism is connected with liberty, equality and internationalism, where people are free and happy. For example, he stated in conclusion:
â€žOne thing in our favour is that a major war is not likely to happen immediately” which he was seeking Democratic Socialism.
In his novel , Orwell created that a world in which citizens have no right to a personal life or to personal thought . Their leisure and activities are controlled through a system. Sexual pleasure is discouraged.
He described politically about that the world is controlled by three similar totalitarian superstates which are Oceania ( English Socialism), Eurasia ( Neo Bolshevism), and Eastasia ( China, Korea and Japan), the ideologies of the three states are the same. He explained each superstate is strong, it can not be defeated. The fights between the three superstates are neve rending war.
Orwell expressed in the novel about the Nationalism, which he summarised in:
â€ž ‘ Nationalism I mean that human beings can be classified like insects and the people can be labelled ‘ good’ or ‘ bad’ , on other hand is inseparable from the desire for power”
â€ž Nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism. ‘ Patriotism I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of a life which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people”.
( Notes on Nationalism by George Orwell( 1945))
He also described what he believed was the future of England. For example:
(England will still be England, an everlasting animal stretching into the future
and the past , and, like all living things , having the power to change out of recognition and yet remain the same”. ( george Orwell ‘ The Lion and the Unicorn”,1 part’England Your England’ ( 1941)
This novel as a warning of the dangers of totalitarianism.
The novel is set in an imagery future world taht is dominated by three totalitarian states.
Orwell tried to portray a totalitarian state ,where the truth did not exist.
Orwell made in this book many observations that manage to reduce our freedom, and warned híd readers against communism, against the power of mass media.
Orwell has created characters and events are scarely realistic.
David Goodman stated:
â€ž The future is here. George Orwell believed the stark totalitarian society he described in 1984 actually would arrive by the year 2000, thanks to slow, sinister influence of socialism” ( David Goodman â€žOrwell’s 1984″)
â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” is often compared to a â€ž Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley, both anovels are powerful dystopian novels warning of the future world where the state machine exerts complete control over social life.
â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” had most influence on historical revisionism.
Revisionist pioneer Harry Elmer Barnes wrote:
â€žOrwell’s book is keenest and most penetrating work produced in this generation on the current trends in national policy and world affairs. To discuss world trends today without reference to the Orwell frame of reference is not unlike writing on biology without reference to Darwin, Mendel, De Vries…”
( Harry Elmer Barnes ‘ How â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four” Trends Threaten American Peace , Freedom and Prosperity’)
Why did George Orwell call his novel â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”?
The usual explanation for the choice of title of Nineteen Eighty Four is that it was a play on the last two digits of 1948.
Orwell was uncertain as to the title of his new novel. He had two titles in his mind and he asked at least two people for their view. They were the American publisher Robert Giroux and The Catholic conservative writer G.K Chesterton.
â€ž In December 1948, the publisher had compiled a report on the novel , called it â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”, as did one of the professional readers.”
The book was published in 1948.
The Catholic conservative writer has influenced him very much. He was a master of observable talent with sensual and intelectual honesty. Orwell liked his his method of writing. Orwell continues by contrasing Chesterton’s Catholic conservativism with his own democratic socialism.
( David Alan Green â€ž Why did George Orwell call his novel â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”)
The primary sources
1.Orwell, George.” Notes on Nationalism” (1945)
2.Orwell, George. â€ž The Lion and the Unicorn” (1941)
Goodman, David. â€ž Orwell’s 1984″(2001)
â€ž Why did George Orwell call his novel â€ž Nineteen Eighty Four”? By David Alan Green
The secondary source( the internet sources)
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