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Types Of Pollution And Their Effects Environmental Sciences Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 1142 words Published: 27th Jul 2021

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The introduction of harmful waste materials, other forms of contamination which are a hazard to the life sustaining atmosphere of the planet earth is commonly known as pollution. Pollution affects the ecosystem of the planet causes discomfort to almost every living organism on the face of the planet. It is the result of ever-increasing pollution into the environment that the ozone layer over the earth that defends us from the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun is being depleted. Recent rise in the temperature of many countries across the world is also the result of the same. (Pollution)

Types of Pollution

Typically, there are 4 main types of pollution, which are:

  1. Air Pollution
  2. Water Pollution
  3. Noise Pollution
  4. Land Pollution

Air Pollution

Air Pollution is the contamination of air in the atmosphere that is important for every living being on the planet to sustain life. The common air pollutants (the substances which cause pollution) include smoke and harmful gases from industries, CFCs and oxides produced by the automobiles, the burning of solid wastes, i.e. sulphur oxides, CO, CO2, particulate matter, NH3, smoke produced by explosives and other radioactive particles (e.g. Radon gas is released into the atmosphere because of radioactive decay within the Earth’s crust) being released into the atmosphere. Air Pollution can also be a consequence of the natural disasters such as a volcanic eruption.

Negative effects of Air Pollution

Air pollution causes depletion of the protective ozone layer. It also has dire health effects on the individuals living on earth; it may cause respiratory problems, asthma, lungs and heart diseases, etc. Air pollution also affects the cardiovascular system, but the effects depend on the individual’s exposure to the pollutants.

How to prevent Air Pollution

Since some of the reasons of air pollution are natural, there is hardly any sort of possible human control. But, for the human caused pollution, one of the finest ways to stop air pollution is to walk more or cycle more, rather than driving cars and other motor vehicles, because the emission from them is the most prominent form of air pollution in today’s context. Regular and on-time maintenance of vehicles can also help reduce the pollution substantially. Usage of bio-fuels, like CNG, and bio-gas also aid prevention of pollution in the atmosphere. In order to make sure that these rules are being followed there could be some kind of legislation from the government in the respective countries to ensure that there is reduced pollution ever. (Pollution, Water Pollution, Air Pollution)

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Water Pollution

Water is one of the most important natural resources on the planet which is one of the necessary elements to sustain life on earth. Addition of harmful products to water which make is unusable is commonly known as Water Pollution. These products could be chemical, biological or physical materials that deteriorate the quality of water and the lives associated with it. Some of the most common water pollutants include industrial wastes (which are directly dumped into the sea of lakes making the water unfit for fishes and other organisms living in the water), domestic and farm wastes, oil spills, pesticides, as well as mining and agricultural wastes. (Pollution, Water Pollution, Air Pollution)

Negative effects of Water Pollution

About 40% of the deaths globally are accounted by water pollution. Polluted water affects the flora and fauna of the sea organisms and these organisms when consumed by humans, cause harmful diseases. Also, the contamination of drinking water, which is produced from natural water resources, causes diseases such as jaundice, cholera, or typhoid.

How to prevent Water Pollution

As such, there are no ways to ensure prevent water pollution. The most effective way to prevent water pollution is to generate consciousness among the masses about the ill-effects of the same and if possible, enforce laws to prevent disposal of harmful wastes into the water.

Noise Pollution

It is the excessive cacophony in the environment, primarily due to sounds created by machines. It is generally caused by loudspeakers, microphones, loud music, noise from industries, from construction and civil engineering works etc.

Negative effects of Noise Pollution

The main problem that noise pollution, (also known as sound pollution), causes is that it affects the physiological and psychological health of an individual who is exposed to the excessive sound. Sometimes, it can even cause deafness and impaired hearing. It also causes annoyance which might result on blood pressure variations, ultimately leading to coronary diseases.

How to prevent Noise Pollution

Again, legislation can be one of the most effective ways to reduce noise pollution. Also creation of airports, bus stands etc away from residential areas can be an effective way. (Noise Pollution and its control)

Land Pollution

Degrading the earth’s surface by improper commercial, industrial, agricultural and domestic activities is known as land pollution. Dumping of e-wastes and other industrial wastes into the land causes land pollution. Insecticides, pesticides etc also harm the agricultural land and the soil. Mining, deforestation, oil refineries construction debris, etc are the most common land pollutants.

Negative effects of Land Pollution

The agricultural capability of soil gets affected as a result of the land pollution, making it infertile and unusable for farming purposes. Also, it might result in the lowering of water table inside the ground.

How to prevent Land Pollution

In order to prevent land pollution, individual should be more focused on buying bio-degradable products and the products can also be recycled, i.e. recycling the inorganic materials should be an important focus. As far as organic compounds are considered, they can be dumped in places which are far away from residential places or agricultural lands. Reducing the use of pesticides and insecticides can also aid land pollution prevention. Oil spilling has to be taken care of. Anti-littering campaigns can be initiated to create awareness about ill-effects of littering.


In conclusion, it would be safe to say that pollution is very important to be controlled if life is intended to be sustained on the planet. It may be in different forms but if the masses can be properly informed and educated along with strict legislations, pollution can be controlled.


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