Data Encryption Standard and Their Importance
Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm is required for all financial transactions of the United States government relating electrical account transference, as well as those directed by member banks of the Federal Reserve System. Subsequent acceptance of the DES by standards organizations international made DES international for business and profitable data security as well. Encryption is the method which converts data to a form that no other person can understand unless the individual who has the code or a clue about the technique which are used for the dialog of the data. In encryption, simple text is converted, and it is known as the ciphertext and converted by different algorithms. Decryption is the opposite method of encryption in which encrypted test is transformed into original text again. Encryption and decryption are the inverses of each other. Encryption and Decryption help to hide important information from being hacked or shared by others; all countries secrets are saved from the enemies by this method. There are many different procedures of encryption and decryption to hide secrets or documents.
Data Encryption Purpose
Data encryption purpose is to protect numerical data privacy as it is saved on computer systems and spread using the internet or different computer networks. DES has been changed by modern encryption algorithms that are a very important role in the safety of IT systems and communications. These algorithms offer privacy and drive key security creativities with verification, integrity, and non-repudiation. Confirmation permits for the verification of a message’s source and integrity offer proof that the contents of the message still the same as it was sent. Furthermore, non-repudiation confirms that the sender cannot refuse or deny the message sent. “In the future, a comparative analysis to measure the performance of these key lengths using the text length, encryption and decryption time, as well as memory consumption will be carried out” (Christiana, A. O., Adeshola, G. Q., and Oluwatobi, A. N. (2017)). Data Encryption Standard helped to indorse the study of cryptography and the progress of new encryption algorithms. Till DES, cryptography was a vague smart idea limited to the military and government organizations. The exposed nature of DES inevitable academics, mathematicians and everyone interested in security can study the work of algorithm.
Data Encryption and Advanced Encryption Standard.
Challenges were supported to prove that the DES was insufficient and would not be used in significant systems any longer, by counting the time to decrypt a message. Distributed.net and the Electronic Frontier Foundation played an original role to break DES. The first contest needed eighty-four days to break the encrypted message by a brute force attack. The second contest was divided into two challenges. The first one needed a month to encrypt a message; then the second challenge took only three days or less. The final contest needed only twenty-two hours and fifteen minutes to encrypt the message. The idea is through years the timing to encrypt a confidential and a secret message decreased, which causes a decreasing of the importance and difficulty of the encryption idea. “The recently presented related key-pairs of the DES and used them to reduce the exhaustive key search effort, resulting in an attack slightly faster than previous known results” (Phan, R. C.-W. (2007)). One of the goals of the NIST for the DES replacement algorithm was that it had to be effective in software and hardware applications. DES was, in the beginning, applied only in hardware applications. Java and C reference applications were used to do a performance study of the algorithms. AES was chosen over an open competition from as many research international teams, and the total amount of resources due to that development was great. NIST replaced the DES by AES. “AES algorithm is a symmetric cryptographic in block cipher category that can encrypt data in high speed without sacrificing security levels” (Putra, S. D., Yudhiprawira, M., Sutikno, S., Kurniawan, Y., & Ahmad, A. S. (2019)). The choice development for AES was exposed to public study and reference; this confirmed a detailed, precise examination of the projects submitted. NIST detailed the new progressive encryption standard algorithm necessity to be a block cipher which can handle a hundred and twenty-eight bit blocks; other conditions for being selected as the next continuous encryption standard algorithm needed: security, cost, and implementation: Algorithm and implementation features to be estimated included the litheness of the algorithm; suitability to be applied in hardware or software; and in general, qualified simplicity of implementation. “The effects on the protocols of multiple authentication servers differ somewhat between the two encryption techniques” (Needham, R. M., Schroeder, M. D., & Gaines, R. S. (1978)).
Encrypt and Decrypt Data in an Image
Steganography is a method of keeping a message secret and protected it in a protected image while the sender and receiver are communicated. These days, communication is one of the most significant ways of sending and distribute information by using the internet or telephones. Many in the protected pathway have been approved out the data, to keep the data safe from an intruder. To protect and maintain data, Steganography and Cryptography are two methods which could be used. “If the receiver has data extraction and image decryption keys, he can decrypt an image similar to the original one up to 80% but cannot get the additional data” (Tahir, A. S. (2015)). In steganography, data is encrypted or obscured and then implanted. It is using a distinct algorithm, into data that is a portion of a specific file format as a JPEG image, audio or video file. The undisclosed message can be included in standard data in different ways. One method is to hide data in bits that signify the similar color pixels repetitive in a row in an image. By using the encrypted data to this data in some discreet way, the effect will be an image file. It looks matching the original model but has “noise” patterns of unencrypted data. Watermark is one of the frequent uses of steganography. It is a technique often used by online editors to find the source of media files that have been creating to be shared without permission.
The Fifth Amendment and Data Encryption
Encrypted hard drives are almost impassable; even the government face a problem with it if the password or code is not available. The main point of encryption is to hide data from others. So far, the government not only can check your secret data; it has the right to ask for the password or code. In applying criminal laws, the government has detained data in the method of paper documents for years. These documents are progressively digital, saved in hard drives as an alternative of filing. Even if the government legally take a hard drive, it may not access the drive’s data. In this situation, the government needs to use the law to get the drive’s password or its decrypted data. The Fifth Amendment pursues a reasonable balance between the government’s interest and people’s privacy. The U.S. Supreme Court has frequently balanced in the government’s service and limited the privilege’s possibility where holding would reduce crimes almost impossible to sue. These results would attend the right of protecting encrypted data. Thus, the privilege should not defend against the required passwords or decrypted data. “The Fifth Amendment Due Process Clause, but a person can be compelled to provide it over an objection based on the Self-Incrimination Clause. The protection against compelled self-incrimination may apply to the act of producing non-testimonial evidence.” (Cauthen, R. H. (2017)). The Fifth Amendment offers that no one will be forced in any criminal position witness against himself. It found passwords and safe combinations than keys and hence detained that neither their invention nor the creation of decrypted data can be forced. Passwords should not be forced into this key-combination difference. They are neither a password nor a code, and Court doctrine proposes the contrast should not be automatically useful to new unlocking devices. The contradiction developed because passwords and codes have different Fifth Amendment suggestions. Passwords for encrypted data needs new suggestions in attention balancing and then should be treated differently. “Fifth Amendment so that the technology does not dramatically shift the balance of power too much against the public interest in investigating crime” (Kerr, O. S. (2019)).
Encryption is the procedure of encoding data so that it will be private and unreachable to unauthorized persons. It protects secrete data and improves the safety of communication between users and servers. Even if the data encrypted is accessed by unauthorized users, without the passwords or code, it cannot be read. For data encryption, an encryption key uses an encryption algorithm to interpret the message into unreadable information or ciphertext. For a good encryption algorithm, the longer the key, the harder it is to decrypt a ciphertext without having the key. Algorithms are like anything else can be a break and reach by a proper attack. Many diverse ways of encryption and decryption are used to protect secret data and private information.
Below is the annotated bibliography list which includes academic journals. These journals are studies regarding the Data Encryption Standard, its importance, what it is, how it works, how it is used, and what are its benefits. Data Encryption Standard is a study of making an undisclosed message, and it is continuously developed. The progress involves attacking and protecting the attacking itself. These journals are researching use project research procedure as a study outline began from research explanation to graphic research. This paper will help the reader to understand and know all advanced data encryption, the difference between them, and when to use it. Background information will also contain security, breaking codes, hacking, data transmission system, digital communication, and computers.
Definition of Terms
Data Encryption Standard (DES)- A cryptographic password and algorithm are used to make data secrete and private. DES encrypt any text or numbers.
Advance Encryption Standard (AES)- A code used by the government to make their data and information private and secrete.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)- Physical sciences, and a non-regulatory agency of the U.S Department of Commerce.
Block Cipher 3 (BC3)- A block cipher encodes a specific size of n-bits of information at one time.
Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC)- The power of the strength of a line of memory between two variables.
1-Bhattacharya, S. (n.d.). Cryptography – Data Encryption Standard (DES). Retrieved from https://www.c-sharpcorner.com/article/cryptography-data-encryption-standard-des/
An example of an encrypted data as an image.
2-Christiana, A. O., Adeshola, G. Q., & Oluwatobi, A. N. (2017). Implementation of Textual Information Encryption Using 128, 192 and 256 Bits Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm. Annals. Computer Science Series, 15(2), 153–159. Retrievedfrom http://search.ebscohost.com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=iih&AN=127544529&site=ehost-live&scope=site
This journal is about how DES is the most popular encryption technique that has become the be a standard to protect private information ranging from ATMs machines and cards with smart ships, emails, and websites. This journal proves the necessity of DES for credit cards and for what DES is upgraded and helped in many purposes.
3- Cauthen, R. H. (2017). The Fifth Amendment and Compelling Unencrypted Data, Encryption Codes, and Passwords. American Journal of Trial Advocacy, 41(1), 119–140. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=131044998&site=ehost-live&scope=site
This journal is about the importance of DES in criminal development investigations. It is regarding how passwords and encrypted information secure the implementation of the law. Legitimately detained computers or any other data storage are kinds of helping to solve crimes. When they are moreover protected with a password, data encrypted, and law enforcement could not have the password. The government will use DES to access all secured devices by law enforcement. This journal can help my paper by proving the importance of DES.
4- Kerr, O. S. (2019). Compelled Decryption and the Privilege Against Self-Incrimination. Texas Law Review, 97(4), 767–799. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=135803833&site=ehost-live&scope=site
This journal is about the Fifth Amendment barrier to have the right of convincing anyone suspicious to unlock the password of phone or a computer. The act of unlocking a password is a recommendation, but it is an indirect situation when the suspicious one knows the password. If the government verify this circumstance, the declaration is a determined assumption, and the Fifth Amendment is used. This is another journal to back up the importance of DES.
5- Phan, R. C.-W. (2007). Reducing the exhaustive key search of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Computer Standards & Interfaces, 29(5), 528–530. Retrievedfrom https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.csi.2006.11.010
This journal is about Exhaustive Key Search, which is regarding breaking DES. It is a program to hack the code of any encrypted data. Encrypted data is hard to be broken, but nothing is impossible. DESCHALL project, which is short of DES challenge made the first effective break of DES. This journal explains the difficulty of attacking DES and proof that it is possible. DES can be texts or numbers; in, either way, it helps to protect essential and classified data or documents.
6-Needham, R. M., Schroeder, M. D., & Gaines, R. S. (1978). Using Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks of Computers. Communications of theACM, 21(12), 993–999. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.1145/359657.359659
This journal is an essential difference between straight and public-key encryption algorithms and how to use the keys. With a straight encryption algorithm, the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. Verification depends upon the sender and recipient in the transaction of communication being the only two members who have the key that is being created to encrypt the shared material.
7-Putra, S. D., Yudhiprawira, M., Sutikno, S., Kurniawan, Y., & Ahmad, A. S. (2019). Power analysis attack against encryption devices: a comprehensive analysis of AES, DES, and BC3. Telkomnika, 17(3), 1282–1289. https://doi-org.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v17i3.9384
This journal uses design research methodology as a research background of control study attack is applied to three regular cryptographic algorithms: DES, AES, and BC3. The study completes that the power analysis attack using the PCC method gives ideal effect compared to a variance of means technique.
8-Tahir, A. S. (2015). Stegano-Crypto Hiding Encrypted Data in Encrypted Image Using Advanced Encryption Standard and Lossy Algorithm. Journal of Applied Computer Science & Mathematics,(20),9–12.Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=iih&AN=110927897&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
Encoding data with encryption keys is not enough; the security of the networks is essential as well. Any data is stored through a system which becomes a firewall to our secured data. In this journal, many ways are shared and explained to secure IP networks. Many types of security protocols are used now a day and the importance of the Steganography. Steganography is a genius idea of hiding data by implanting messages in other, apparently harmless notes and lots of studies are working in it.
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