Have you wondered the truth behind some peoples logic when considering why they believe what they do or why they believe it is true based upon their own interpretation? In almost every aspect of life there is some underlying reason that people conform or believe in things, whether it’s regarded as truth or fallacy. Most people would argue that there is a higher power in terms of religion while most or others will disagree that there is no such existence because they have not seen him personally. An argument can be said to be the exchanging of opposing views by means of persuasion in asserting that a view or purpose is true or false; right or wrong. Philosophers in history have argued that there is error in reasoning in the causation of life and this is can be referred to as a fallacy. A fallacy can be an intentional act or unintentional act or line of reasoning. There are several illogical fallacies beginning with a mere assertion.
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Mere Assertion: An illogical fallacy based up on the belief that an argument is true because you believe in it. In other words, if you argue that the sky is black ant is something that you believe or feel strongly about, and then it is presumed true. Clearly, any other person would note that the sky is never black and is in fact blue at all time. However, in this case, it is true because you believe it.
Circular Reasoning: circular reasoning is the argument that suggests that whatever the argument may be, as long as the conclusion of an argument supports the premise (justifiable claim) then it is true. In simpler terms, the reason for the argument is also the reason in the conclusion. There must be evidence to prove that what you are arguing is a valid argument. For example: Reading is an excellent practice in learning as it helps to enhance one’s knowledge. It is clear that reading does assist in learning new things but reading alone does not promote being more knowledgeable but it does assist in the learning processes.
Ad Hominem: Ad Hominem is an argument’s reasoning associated with demeaning the opposition relevant to the argument. My 4 year old I famous for this because whenever he does something he is not supposed to do or I asked him not to do, and I get on him because of his behavior, he attempts to divert my attention away for the purpose of preventing himself for getting a spanking or yelled at. He may say things like “I just love you so much” or “Mommy can I give you a hug”. Another example is when my mother and I get into arguments about the rude ways she speaks to me; she brings up the topic of money because she wants to control my income. Because we are already in a heated argument, she includes other things in the argument that are irrelevant to her rude ways when conversing.
Red Herring: A form of drawing attention away for means of confusion and irrelevant subjects within an argument. Red herring is a part of an argument where the parties intend to manipulate the argument by including irrelevant reasoning and allow the opposing party to consider the irrelevant information pulling away from the initial reason for the argument. For example: An employee is in trouble with his boss for not completely assignments timely and being rude to clients. The employee mentions other employees who mingle in the workplace and take personal calls pretending to be talking business with clients. In this situation, the employee is attempting to influence his boss to consider the quality of other’s work in order to reduce the tension between the boss and himself.
Pseudo Questions: Pseudo questions can be defined as rhetorical questions which mean that they cannot be answered. Pseudo question can be simple question that are hard to answer because the person who supposed to answer has no knowledge of the topic. A question by Billy Corgon asks “If practice makes perfect and no one is perfect, then why practice? Or George Corlin asks “Why do doctors call the work a practice? Isn’t what they learned a skill?
False Cause: False cause is a fallacy that suggests that something is the result of something else. This fallacy is similar to determinism where every event has a cause. An example of false cause: Tyler Perry became famous, a great writer and actor because he gained experience from living on the streets and being homeless. If this were true, then all homeless people would become actors because they lived on the street thus gaining experience.
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Sweeping generalizations: The fallacy that says if one assumes that all incidents of reason are applied to every situation. Furthermore, sweeping generalizations accepts the sense that there are no exceptions to generalization. For example: People who don’t eat pork are Muslims. You are a Muslim because you don’t eat pork. In this case, not eating pork can be for religious purposes but also can apply to the fact that the person is a vegetarian thus invalidating the argument because there is an exception to this argument.
Slippery Slope: Suggests that a cause of events will continuously occur because one thing causes another. In other words, by chance one thing will finally lead to the last. Consider the slippery slope fallacy in this situation. Not wearing a coat in the winter will cause you to catch a cold eventually. How does this occur? Well first you get the sniffles and maybe allergy like symptoms (i.e. stuffy nose, clogged ears, runny eyes) following maybe changes in your body temperature then eventually you will cough which signifies that you have caught a cold. Any human knows that if you act carelessly in the winter, you will be subjected to catching a cold and being sick. Being sick is not fun right?
Equivocation or Changing Means: Altering the meaning of a word in the course of an argument. Christmas celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ and is a time of happiness therefore the birth of Jesus Christ must too be full of happiness. This example signals that both implications of the argument produces happiness (i.e. Christmas and the birth of Jesus Christ); Jesus himself being full of happiness because his birth was full of happiness.
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