Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Analysis of Maslows theory of motivation

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 5526 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

Reference this

” Htee Ree Muan Ta Hta , Htee Ree La Ta Soung,Yam Ree Ham,Um Ree Dam”, old saying in Pa-Oh language was quoted from former local teacher of Yoke village. It means “Don’t see in advance just by six inches, try to see further tens of thousands distance, same as to do the plow before you eat your meal”. It is also similar to English saying think twice before you act. Hence, prior to testing, the following theories and literature have been reviewed to have better idea and to see whether there is consistency between theory and the real world situation.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Essay Writing Service

Maslow’s Theory of Motivation – Hierarchy of Needs

In 1943, Dr. Abraham Maslow’s article, “A Theory of Human Motivation ” appeared in the Psychological Review, which were further expanded upon in his book:  Toward a psychology of well being, Abraham H. Maslow attempted to formulate a needs-based framework of human motivation and based upon his clinical experiences with people, rather than as did the prior psychology theories of his day from authors such as Freud and B.F. Skinner, which were largely theoretical or based upon animal behavior.

The basis of Maslow’s motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs “deficiency needs.” As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.

Maslow’s model indicates that fundamental, lower-order needs like safety and physiological requirements have to be satisfied in order to pursue higher-level motivators along the lines of self-fulfillment. As depicted in the following hierarchical diagram, sometime called ‘Maslow’s Needs Pyramid’ or ‘Maslow’s Needs Triangle’, after a need is satisfied it stops acting as a motivator and the next need one rank higher starts to motivate.


Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs


2.1.1 Physiological needs

For the most part, physiological needs are obvious – they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing, shelter) and sex), the human body simply cannot continue to function. Physiological needs include: Breathing, Homeostasis, Water, Sleep, Sex, Clothing, and Shelter.

2.1.2 Safety needs

With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual’s safety needs take over and dominate their behavior. These needs have to do with people’s yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, this safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, and the like. Particularly, physiological and safety needs are reasonably well satisfied in the “First World”. The obvious exceptions, of course, are people outside the mainstream – the poor and the disadvantaged. They still struggle to satisfy the basic physiological and safety needs. They are primarily concerned with survival: obtaining adequate food, clothing, shelter, and seeking justice from the dominant societal groups. Safety and Security needs include: Personal security, financial security, Health and well-being, Safety net against accidents/illness and the adverse impacts

2.1.3 Social needs

After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow’s hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general, such as: Friendship, Intimacy, Having a supportive and communicative family. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs (‘safety in numbers’), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

2.1.4 Esteem

All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels. Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-esteem, strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The last one is higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. Maslow stresses the dangers associated with self-esteem based on fame and outer recognition instead of inner competence. Healthy self-respect is based on earned respect.

2.1.5 Self-Actualization

The motivation to realize one’s own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the need for self-actualization is the final need that manifests when lower level needs have been satisfied. Classical Alderrain psychotherapy promotes this level of psychological development, utilizing the foundation of a 12-stage therapeutic model to realistically satisfy the basic needs, leading to an advanced stage of “meta-therapy,” creative living, and self/other/task-actualization. Maslow’s writings are used as inspirational resources.

2.1.6 Self-transcendence

Near the end of his life Maslow revealed that there was a level on the hierarchy that was above self-actualization: self-transcendence. “[Transcenders] may be said to be much more often aware of the realm of Being (B-realm and B-cognition), to be living at the level of Being… to have unitive consciousness and “plateau experience” (serene and contemplative B-cognitions rather than climactic ones) … and to have or to have had peak experience (mystic, sacral, ecstatic) with illuminations or insights. Maslow later did a study on 12 people he believed possessed the qualities of Self-transcendence. Many of the qualities were guilt for the misfortunes of someone close creativity, humility, intelligence, and divergent thinking. They were mainly loners, had deep relationships, and were very normal on the outside. Maslow estimated that only 2% of the population will ever achieve this level of the hierarchy in their lifetime, and that it was absolutely impossible for a child to possess these traits.

2.2 Maslow’s Theory – Limitations and Criticism

Though Maslow’s hierarchy makes sense intuitively, little evidence supports its strict hierarchy. Actually, recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. As an example, in some cultures, social needs are placed more fundamentally than any others. Further, Maslow’s hierarchy fails to explain the “starving artist” scenario, in which the aesthetic neglects their physical needs to pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual goals. Additionally, little evidence suggests that people satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time, other than situations where needs conflict.

2.2.1 ERG Theory of Motivation – Clayton P. Alderfer

In 1969, Clayton Alderfer’s revision of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, called the ERG Theory appeared in Psychological Review in an article titled “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need.” Alderfer’s contribution to organizational behavior was dubbed the ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth), and was created to align Maslow’s motivation theory more closely with empirical research.

Source http://www.envisionsoftware.com/Management/ERG_Theory

Beyond simply reducing the distinction between overlapping needs, the ERG theory improves upon the following shortcomings of Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy:

Alderfers ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may motivate at the same time. A lower motivator need not be substantially satisfied before one can move onto higher motivators.

The ERG theory also accounts for differences in need preferences between cultures better than Maslow’s Need Hierarchy; the order of needs can be different for different people. This flexibility accounts for a wider range of observed behaviors. For example, it can explain the “starving artist” who may place growth needs above those of existence.

The ERG theory acknowledges that if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to satisfy. This is known as the frustration-regression principle.

2.3 Capability approach

Amartya Sen – Capability Approach clearly shows that there are certain basic capabilities everybody should have access to; Nutrition (Food), Health, Basic Education, Social Connection, Market access, Ability to work .It is a theory of persons and their development in terms of functioning.

(Little 2003: P17-18) state that in normal process of development, capabilities that all humans have the potential to develop and exercises are realized in play, work, education, conversation, family life, friendship, and so on. Lack of good preventive health care may prevent a child from taking part in play of benefiting from an education. Lack of opportunities for employment may harm the development of many. Thus, a series of institutional, social, and family requirements need to be in place for successful development

(David P. Levine & S.Abu Turab Rizvi 2005: P 46-47) state that , when people have chosen a way of life and are pursuing it successfully, their needs are satisfied. Income and commodities are important not for their own sake but because of their absence might retard development. Thus, needs fulfillment is important to extent that it allows for human flourishing and so as free choice is important in the same way.

(Sen 1993 : P 33-39 ) state that , the freedom to lead different types of life is reflected in the person’s capability set .And capability set should be evaluated not only according to the set of real opportunities ( well-being freedom) but also the well – being achievement .(Sen 1993 : P 41 ) pin point in terms of poverty analysis , identifying a minimal combination of basic capabilities can be a good way of setting up the problem of diagnosing and measuring poverty. Since income is not desired for its own sake, any income -based notion of poverty must refer- directly or indirectly to those basic ends which are promoted by income as means. However, as long as minimal capabilities can be achieved by enhancing the income level (given the other personal and social characteristics on which capabilities depend), it will be possible (for the specified personal and social characteristics) to identify the minimally adequate income for reaching the minimally acceptable capability level.

2.4 Income Distribution and Consumption

Furthermore, Smith and Hadded -2000, states that Income opportunity along with food availability defines food security at household level. That’s relevant to Ernst Engel’s Law which in this context is seen as the greater the household food insecurity the greater the share of household food expenditure to total expenditure.

Engel’s Law states that as incomes increases, proportion of income spent on consumption reduces. Engel’s Law can be identified as a fundamental principle of income and consumption theory. Engel’s Law states that as income rises, percentage of income spent on consumption rises slower as compared to rise in income. Engel’s Law; Consumption is described as utilizing a service or product until its economic value is exhausted. It can also be described as aggregate expenditure on personal consumption that manifests itself on buying of goods and services. Expense required is sourced from either savings, income or even from borrowed funds. Consumption denotes that portion of disposable income that is not saved by an individual.

According to Economypedia Websites -“Autonomous consumption is described as consumption quantum that would be present even if a consumer had no source of income at all. A person’s autonomous consumption ascertains his or her real wages or real (Source: http://www.economypedia.com/wiki/index.php?title=Income) income. Examples of autonomous consumption include food, house rent, and electricity. In case, a person’s income suddenly ceases to exist, he or she is compelled to take money from savings to meet these financial obligations. Income is the revenue earned by any individual. Flow of money to any factor of production is termed as income. Income is generated by sale of commodities or services. Returns to labor, enterprise, capital, and land are termed as wage, profit, interest, and rent respectively. Thus, sum of wage, profit, interest and rent is income. In simple terms, income is an opportunity earned from various sources and income provides the ability to consume and avail other services. Income is sometimes used as a macro concept and again income is treated as a constraint. When we talk about consumer theory in economics, income is treated as a budget constraint. Consumer theory is the study of consumer behavior. Here, income is spent on two different goods of different prices. Thus, a basic equation that can be formed as follows:

I = Px . X + Py . Y ,Where I = income from poppy spent on two goods x (basic needs) and y (luxuries or inferior goods) in quantities X and Y at prices Px and Py.

“First, people are often reluctant to change jobs for psychological and institutional reasons (Gujarati 2003). Additionally, income levels are often perpetuated from one generation to another by means of inheritance, cultural background and, more generally, characteristics of the community (Bourguignon and Morrisson 1990; Cooper, Durlauf et al. 1994; Durlauf 1996; Checchi 2000). This allows for intergenerational stability in income, denoting the existence of a positive autocorrelation in inequalities. Cooper (1998), for instance, has pointed out that families from poor communities or wealthy communities tend to exhibit higher intergenerational income stability than families living in middle income communities. Hence, it is often the case that a proportion of the population remains trapped at low and high levels of income for more than one generation. Income persistence is often viewed (i.e. Lane 1971) as an essential characteristic of rewarding achievement and, particularly, of ensuring that the most suitable persons are allocated the most suitable roles. The presence of inequalities in income provides an additional incentive to achievement and innovation which are an integral part of modern society. Some degree of inequality is generally perceived as a necessary constituent of a healthily functioning economy (Champernowne and Cowell 1998, p.14). According to Aghion and Bolton (1992) and Galor and Zeira (1993), the persistence of income inequalities across generations is possible only if capital markets are imperfect.”(Source: www.esri.ie/research/research…/Working_Paper_No._9.pdf)

2.5 Causes of Dualism (Amartya Sen- 1975)

Dualism of labor arises from a number of different causes, and since their implications are quite different, it is necessary to distinguish clearly between the different types of causation;

Laborer’ job preferences. The laborer in question could actually prefer to be in one sector rather than in another e.g., working in peasant agriculture rather than in wage employment in the town. It would be foolish to attribute all such preferences to irrational in having a preference for being one’s own master in one’s farm even at a lower income, rather than working as a’ wage ‘slave in some factory, or indeed in some other farm. What is, however, more easy to argue is the case of avoiding the assumption of stationary taste. Preferences about one’s way of life and location are typically the result of one’s past experience and an initial reluctance to move does not imply a perpetual dislike. The distinction has some bearing on the welfare aspects of employment policy, since the importance that one wishes to attach to the wage gap as a reflection of the laborer’s preferences would tend to depend on the extent to which tastes are expected to vary as a consequence of the movement itself.

Indivisibilities in labor supply. A laborer could prefer to work half time in his farm and half time in a factory, but he may not be able to do this, given the physical problems of location and organizational problems of the factory system. To take up a job in factory he may have to leave his farm altogether or at least for long stretches of time, and the same may be true if accepting a job in say, an irrigation project. The high level of transportation costs, including the monetary and psychological cost of settling in, may persuade the laborer to stick to his firm unless the reward elsewhere is very high. But settled in his own farm the supply price of labor z and the real cost of labor j for hours (or days) of extra effort may be comparatively low.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

Loss of share of family income. A movement away from one’s farm may involve the loss of one’s share of the family income. In terms of orthodox economic theory it is possible to split the earnings of the peasant into two parts- one being the reward for labor and the other that for being a joint owner of family resources, in particular the plot of land. But there is a kind of labor theory of value which tends to determine the distributional principles in a peasant society, and the possibility of the ex-peasant working in the town but nevertheless cashing in on the ‘implicit rent ‘ on his share of the land is frequently rather remote. This ‘income aspect’ of employment we distinguished from its ‘production aspect’, the peasant in question may have economic incentive not to move, even when his marginal contribution to the family output is negligible or low. What wage he will accept as minimal compensation depends partly on the extract distribution system in the peasant set-up and partly on his concern for the welfare of the joint family as compared with his own welfare. The greater his concern, the more willing he will move, since his loss of implicit rent is a gain for the others in the joint family.

Labor legislation and union pressure. In many countries there is labor legislation specifying a minimum wage for employment in the organized sector and even if the number of people seeking such jobs far exceeds the number of jobs available, the wage rate will still not decline. The same results is sometimes achieved by unionized labor through wage bargaining. This provides a straightforward institutional explanation of the wage gap between organized and unorganized sectors.

Employers’ incentives for paying high wages. The employer is under certain circumstances; better off by paying wages higher than the minimum at which he can recruit labor. First , the costs of rapid labor turnover can be very high for the firm in terms of work disruption and frequent rearrangements, and the industrialist may have an incentive to offer higher wages and for aiming at a loyal labor force. Since many industrial firms use rather heavily mechanized techniques, the share of labor cost even at a comparatively high wage may be quite low, while the loss from strife and discontent in reducing the effectiveness of the machines may be relatively much higher. Thirdly, higher wages may also have a direct impact on labor productivity through better nutrition and greater ability to work hard. While the first two considerations apply especially to wage labor in the modern industrial sector, this third consideration is thought to be particularly relevant for hired labor within the agricultural sector itself.

2.6 Moral Related Literature

Sen. A. (1987). (On Ethics & Economics P-43) state that to recognize the distinction between ” Agency Aspect and Well-being Aspect” of a person does not require take the view of that person’s success as an agent must be independent, or completely separable from, his success in terms of well- being. Which seem to agree with ERG theory of Aldefur regression and frustration in a way that ” A person may well feel happier and better off as a result of achieving what he wanted to achieve- perhaps for his family , or his community , or his class, or his party, or some other cause. Also it is quite possible that a person’s well-being will go down as a result of frustration if there is some failure to achieve what he wanted to achieve as an agent, even though those achievement are not directly concerned with his well-being.

Sen. A. (1987). (On Ethics & Economics P-80) described “the complex structure of “self-interested behavior” has three distinct and essentially independent features as followed;

Self-centered welfare: A person’s welfare depends only on his or her own consumption (and particular it does not involve any sympathy or antipathy towards others).

Self-welfare goal: A person’s goal is to maximize his or her own welfare , and given uncertainty- the probability- weighted expected value of that welfare ( and in particular, it does not involve directly attaching importance to the welfare of others)/

Self-goal choice: Each act of a choice of a person is guided immediately by the pursuit of one’s own goal (and in particular, it is not restrained or adapted by the recognition of mutual interdependence of respective successes, given other people’s pursuit of their goals).

Sen argued that welfare economics can be substantially enriched by paying more attention to ethics and the study of ethics can also benefit from a closer contact with economics.”

Concerning about rights Sen argues that welfarism must be compromised, if the rights violations are treated as bad things and rights fulfillments as good things. Because welfarism requires that nothing else be intrinsically valued other than utilities. When different elements of utilitarianism are unpacked, it is seen that although a right based moral theory cannot coexist with “welfarism” or ” sum ranking”, it can very well do so with consequentialism.

(William H Shaw 1999 3rd edt.p-19) claims that self interest person has less happiness and less satisfying lives than those whose desires extend beyond themselves and defines as the “Paradox of Hedonism”. In contrary , they are even found having greater satisfaction by living according to moral principle than by devoting life solely to immediate self interest.

“Varian’s idea of fairness has to do with the notion of envy and is therefore known as envy-free justice. Envy free allocation is one in which no one envies the bundle of anyone else. However, two main condemn Varian’s envy-free justice. First, allocation of goods is envy free does not mean that it is appealing on other grounds. For example, one person may be extremely happy with has allocated bundle, whereas another person may be miserable. The happy person will certainly not envy his miserable neighbor. However, it is possible that the miserable neighbor is also not envious. She may find that the happy neighbor’s bundle includes goods that she hates. Second, not all Pareto -optimal allocations are envy free.” (Hal.R.Varian -Microeconomic Modern approach P-568-569)

2.7 Poverty and Opium Related Literature

DavidA.Dufree (1970 P.76) state that “Poverty is both root and offshoot of inadequate schooling, deficient health services, crime and juvenile delinquency, inadequate social security and welfare programs to deal with the problems of broken homes and the penury of so many of the old , indecent housing conditions, civil strife, and high unemployment resulting in the main from slow economic growth.”

” From the acknowledgment that economic necessity often plays a key role in the decision to cultivate illicit crops, there is consensus in the international community that the economic reliance on crop cultivation can only be removed when viable , sustainable income generating activities are available in the legal sector” ( World Drug Report 2000: 143)

In the opium related literature, many reports suggest that the immediate and underlying cause of the poppy cultivation is economic. Most scholars claim that the lack of alternative sources of income for poppy farmers is the main factor. They mention several secondary factors pertinent for the cheroot growers and tobacco farmers. These include degraded soil or adverse climatic conditions for that result in poor yields for tobacco and the other crops they grow. Yet other factors include post-harvest problems for tobacco that could cause the crop to spoil because of improper storage. High transportation costs to take the crop to markets and uncertain market prices are other reasons why farmers decide to grow the opium poppy as a cash crop.

With reference to the annual income comparison between poppy and non poppy village, UNODC 2009-Illicit Crop Monitoring Report found that the opium poppy growers have an average lower cash income than those who do not grow the poppy. One main reason is that when people grow poppy addiction will occur. Usually this starts because the growers take opium as a medicine to reduce pain, relieve cough, treat diarrhea or for some other ailment. In the absence of other medicines the use of opium often continues until addiction takes place. When that happens, and particularly among heads of household who are usually the strongest person in the family, they grow less productive and thus cause the entire household’s income to decline.

After its take over of the country in 1988 Military Government of Myanmar amended the 1974 Nacortics Drug law (BURMA PRESS SUMMARY, The WORKING PEOPLE’S DAILY) Vol.II, No. 4, April 1988 ) as below.

“Section 2: In Section 2 of the 1974 Narcotics Drug Law [NDL], the following shall be substituted for Sub-section A A. Narcotic drugs are defined to be any of the following: i. Poppy plants, coca leaves and cannabis in any form together with any manufactures thereof; ii. Any preparations of poppy plants, coca leaves, or cannabis; iii. Chemicals of properties similar to those of narcotic drugs or chemical compounds of narcotic drugs or other similar materials; iv. Drugs or other materials declared to be narcotic drugs by the Minister responsible by notification from time to time.

Section 3. In Section 2 of the NDL the following sub-section E shall be inserted after sub-section D: E. Drug addicts are defined as persons who consume any one type of narcotic drug without a permit.

Section 4. After Section 6 of the NDL the following section shall be inserted: 6A i. No person may possess any narcotic drug for purposes of sale; ii. Any person infringing this section may be punished by imprisonment for a minimum term of ten years with no upper limit and a fine of up to fifty thousand kyats, or by death. In addition, any narcotic drugs concerned and any goods, materials, implements, vehicles, animals, land and buildings involved will be confiscated for the national treasury.

Section 5. After Section 7 of the NDL the following section 7A shall be inserted: 7A i. No person shall transport any narcotic drug for the purpose of sale. ii. [same as 6A ii]

Section 6. In Section 14 of the NDL, the following shall be substituted for subsection A: A. Habitual users of drugs must register themselves at a time and place to be ordered.

Section 7. In Section 14 of the NDL, the following shall be substituted for subsection B: B. The government may make arrangements at its pleasure for the treatment of habitual users who are registered under subsection A.

Section 8. In Section 14 of the NDL the following Section 14A shall be inserted:14A. Any person either in possession or transporting narcotic drugs named below in excess of the quantities named for each may be presumed to be in possession of or transporting them for purposes of sale within the meaning of subsections 6A and 7A: i. White opium – 3 grams, ii. Morphine – 3 grams, iii. Monacetyl morphine – 3 grams, iv. Intoxicating drugs named in subsections A, B and C in, total or in any mixture of two – 3 grams, v. Green opium or prepared opium or the two together – 100 grams,vi. Cannabis or cannabis resin or the two together – 25 grams, vii. Coca leaves – 100 grams, viii. Cocaine – 3 grams”

In 1949, the PaOh National Liberation Organization .use to strongly against the immoral activity such as gambling and intoxication. On May 1958, the PNLO( PaOh National Liberation Organization exchange arms for democracy in order to rehabilitate and reconstruct economic and social life of the PaOh people. They set poppy eradication policy and took measure on supply reduction by adapting central government narcotics drug law (NDL 1947). In terms of demand reduction, detoxification camp in Narbound village (which located nine miles the south of Capital City Taunggyi )was opened and Kachin herbal medicine was used as treatment and also physical and metal rehabilitation was provided.

The (PNO) Pa-Oh leaders in Hopong and Taunggyi have recognized this situation as a problem facing the people. In response they have drawn up an alternative development plan to reduce addiction and introduce other crops by which the farmers can earn cash income. In this regard, the government also has plans to reduce opium production. In October 2007, for example, the Southern Shan State commander called a meeting in Taunggyi of all the local leaders and representatives of government agencies such as CCDAC and NATALA as well as the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation. The purpose was to introduce his plan to reverse the rapid increase of poppy cultivation in Southern Shan State and among the Pa-Oh in particular.

These and other efforts are referred to as alternative development because they seek to develop alternatives to opium production. In 1998 this concept was approved at a Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly. UNGASS defined it as “a process to prevent and eliminate the illicit cultivation of plant


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: