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Female Foeticide Is Truly A Curse Sociology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 4228 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Female foeticide is truly a curse on the Indian society.The Atharva veda says, The birth of a daughter, grant it elsewhere, here grant a son. This saying in the holy scripture sums up the Indian attitude towards female children.

Female foeticide is a grave problem plaguing India since a very long time. It is a heinous crime to even consider killing / aborting a girl child. It is nothing but cold-blooded murder.  [1] The act of aborting or terminating a fetus while it’s still in the womb, because it is female, is known as female feticide. This can be done after determining the sex of the child before it’s born, through ultrasound scans. Female foeticide has become a shameful and shocking reality of our nation. In India a strong preference for sons over daughter. People want smaller families with relatively greater sons by abuse medical technologies. It is one of the important reasons for declining sex ratio. Female foeticideis done deliberately by the mother, after the detection of the child’s gender through medical means. This is usually done under familial pressure from the husband or the in-laws or even the woman’s parents. [2] 

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Literature review:

Shurei (1997) stated that Even in today’s so-called highly modern society, girls are still not regarded as full persons. There continues to be resistance against viewing women as professionals, as economically independent person, and parents and the society still wish to see her as a dutiful wife and mother first, a professional, if at all necessary, last. Even though, after independence, considerable developments have taken place in the lives of women, there remains a bleak picture. The societal attitude is still discriminatory against women. In India more than 6000 women are killed every year because their in-laws consider their dowries inadequate. .( UNICEF (2000) suggested that Some problems to be given topmost priority are femalefoeticide(Census India, 2001), female infanticide, malnutrition, illiteracy, child marriage, dowry harassments and dowry deaths.

Majumdar (2008) expressed his views about human rights in Afghanistan. According to UN figures for 2007, in Afghanistan a total of 1500 civilians were killed. Common people are kidnapped, assaulted, beaten, insulted, threatened and tortured by Taliban. They are threatening the common peoples security and their dignity. Day by day the violence in Afghanistan is increasing. Mander (2008) argued that employing manual scavengers to clear human excreta is punishable under the law. Yet, many institutions, private and public, continue to do so. Manual scavengers themselves do not speak out because of shame and fear of losing even this frequently insecure source of livelihood. Instead they remain trapped in a vicious cycle of intense stigma, segregation, poor health and education, destructive coping strategies like alcohol and drugs. Fuller (2008) explains that the violence against women has been increased in the xenophobic violence that swept across South Africa at the beginning of the year 2008. More than 50 people have died, hundreds were injured and thousands were displaced. Sexual violence against women in South Africa as a means to control and punish women was committed in large number. Men rape South African women as a means of controlling them or curbing their preference to choose foreign men. Naik (2007) states that the imposition of emergency by Bangladesh caretaker government has seen the curtailment of civil liberties along with several human rights violations. Initially greeted with some approval, the excess of the emergency have now evoked widespread apprehension amongst the people. Veisskopf (2006) states that in every country in South Asia there are racial caste or other ethnic communities whose average welfare – by many social and economic indicators – is significantly below that of the population as a whole. In several of these countries, policies of positive discrimination have been introduced in an effort to reduce historically persistent lags in the social and economic welfare of relatively poor communities. By positive discrimination it means preferential selection of numbers of under represented ethnic communities to desirable positions in society, where such policies have been implemented, they have most often proven highly controversial. Rajkumar (2006) asserts that this was the first time, the National Human Rights Commission examined the issue of corruption from a human right standpoint. The gravity of human rights violation resulting from corrupt practices is no less than that of custodial violence or any other form of violation of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. Rastogi and Therly (2006) revealed that domestic violence, sexual harassment in society as well as in the workplace, bonded labourers, poverty, and police neglect and harassment. This essay is an attempt to explore the discrimination women are still facing in society, and how education has made an indelible impression in curbing the practice of dowry through creation of empowered women in society. I conclude by analyzing the situation of women who are still lagging behind. Kaarthikeyan (2005) discusses a variety of issues including poverty, gender justice and child rights. Role of police as protectors of human rights is highlighted by him. He shows terrorism as the gravest violation of human rights. To him custodial justice and role of law enforcement agencies in protecting human rights, without committing excesses, are necessary for a good social set up. Chaudhary (2005) states that human rights and poverty are inter-related. Of course, there is organic interface between the two in the negative sense because poverty and violation of human rights go hand in hand but poverty is not the only manifestation of violation of human rights. The causative factors contributing to the gross violation of human rights are both historical and contextual as well as global and local in nature. Malhotra et al. (2005) point out that in a country, in spite of various constitutional safeguards, violation of human rights takes place every day in a variety of forms. These violations include breach of civil, and political rights, discrimination against minorities, women and weaker sections of society like scheduled caste and scheduled tribes, arbitrary arrest, torture and death of suspected culprits in the police custody, female infanticide, killing of suspected militants in police custody, religious violence, child labour, ethnic killings and kidnapping for ransom. Moreover degraded or polluted environment itself is a human rights violation. It is time to recognize that those who pollute or destroy the natural environment are not just committing a crime against nature but are violating human rights as well. Narain (2005) observes that poverty as a denial or violation of basic human rights because it violates one’s dignity. It is very essential to understand poverty as a human rights violation. Poverty is not natural. It is the expression of many forms of human rights violation. At the outset, poverty denies the right to life, which is the cardinal right. Shamsi (2004) explains that according to authentic source the rate of human rights violation is increasing day-by-day. The people are besieged by human rights violation in all fields, both internal and external. Sharma (2002) violation of human rights is one of the most worrying problems of our times for the entire civilization of the world. All value-based violence which contravenes generally accepted norms of social order, human behaviour and right to life and equality of all men, is retrogressive. Terrorism is negation of life and violation of the norms of human behaviour recognized by all civilized people of the world. Stephen (2002) emphasizes the fact that human beings should overcome the problem of human right violation as they live and respond creatively. Education has never been viewed as a tool to develop the overall personality and capabilities of women. More than acquiring economic and social freedom for women on par with men, the society has viewed education as a requisite for a good marital relationship, as a pre-requisite for obtaining a good match

Objectives of the study

To study the behavior of literate and illiterate Women reducing female foeticide.

To identify the main Factors responsible for female feticide.

To study of impact of female foeticide have on the sex ratio 

To find out the ways and means of reducing the female foeticide.

Research Methodology

Personal interview method is used to know the women behavior about female foeticide in small town JAGADHRI. Respondents have been choosen randomly. Data is collected through news paper, magazines, and sites.

Samle Size = 50 women (literate and illiterate)

Sampling = Judgment sampling

Data analysis and Interpretation:

Ist Obj:- To study the behavior of literate and illiterate Women reducing female feticide.

Comparative Study of ducated women and Uneducated Women




1.Marrital status



2. Status of Family

Single,Confused, income earning

Increase, Joint Family

3. Reasons For

Female Feticide

No Social Security

Dowary,Socail Security, Delhi Case,

4. Resposible for

sex of child



5. Sex of child known

before birth



6. After a boy baby ,

need of girl


Yes, preference is given to Boy Baby.

7. To whom edu. Spending

will be more



8. Suggestions about future of female due to female feticide

1. No Social Security

2. One Wife Multiple Husbands

3. Decrease the dignity of the women.

4. Increase rape, More male Dominating

5. Deterioting moral values in children.

No girls for boys

One girl for many boys

More male dominating


Girls disappear one day

Imbalance society

Second Obj:- To identify the main reasons responsible for female feticide.

“Girls are seen as consumers, whereas boys are seen as producers”

1. Earning Source, carry Name, Shame and care purpose : A son is seen as someone who can earn and care for his parents in their later years, while a daughter will get married and go away. A son can carry on the family name, while a daughter becomes part of her husband’s family. Many families consider it a status symbol to have a son, and a point of shame to have a daughter.

2. Pressure: The pressure to bear a male child on the woman is so great that she herself might choose to get sex determination done and abort the baby if it’s a girl. Illiteracy, poverty and the tag of ‘burden’ that is assigned to a girl child, makes the desire for a male child even stronger. A girl is forced to undergo multiple pregnancies and (or) abortions, until she fulfills her lifelong goal of being a breeding machine that produces male offspring as per the needs of the family

3. Modern technology: Modern technology has made it very easy to determine the sex of the child while it’s still in the womb, giving parents-to-be the option of aborting the fetus and continuing to try to conceive till they get a male child. While sex determination has been banned by the Indian government, it does not stop families from going to great lengths to find out anyway. Not only are there plenty of scanning centers that reveal this information, many of the wealthier families fly the pregnant mother to neighboring countries where sex determination is legal, to find out the gender of the baby. Ultra Sound machines : This process began in the early 1990s when ultrasound techniques gained widespread use in India. “PAY 500 Rs NOW& SAVE 500000 Rs. IN FUTURE.

4. Participation of women: A majority of female foeticide cases involve an enthusiastic participation of women; both old and young. To add fuel to the fire, unethical sex determination and selective abortion of female infants has become a booming US $224 million industry- a dangerous incentive for this transgression to prosper further in the near future.

5. Indian Society and social evils: Indian society professes a profound faith in every individual’s “right to life and dignity”. The rights relating to the weaker & vulnerable sections of Indian society especially women, and more specially the girl child were violated. The main cause of female foeticideis that the dominant position of men in decisions.

6. Women face discrimination :Women face discrimination within families as well as in society, where society maintains double standards in the case of education, marriage, spousal relationships, domestic violence, laws of patriarchal society, property laws, dowry system, sexual morality, sexual harassment as well as discriminatory social stigma and also less recognition and respect for women’s work.

7. Preference for the male child: Elimination of girls from the family tree even before they are born clearly indicates the vehement desire for a boy child. Sons are seen as the main source of income. Even though women today can easily rub shoulders with men, almost in every field they set their mind to, the common misconception still remains that it is the male who will help run the house, and look after his parents. Once married, women are like cargo, ready to be shipped off to another household, while parents breathe a sigh of relief for a job well done in getting their ‘daughter’ settled.

8. Deteriorated Status of Women: ” Yatra naryustu pujyanty ramante tatra devtaa” The status of women in a society can be determined by their education, health, economic role, presence in the professions and management, and decision-making power within the family. It is deeply influenced by the beliefs and values of society. At the heart of the problem is the inferior status of women in society, a patriarchal social framework and value system based on “son mania”

8. Industrial Growth: Industrialization of the health sector has further strengthened the selective sex abortion quarter. With the advent of CVS, amniocentesis and Ultrasound, sex determination of the fetus has become much easier than it was earlier. This goes on to show how the manufacturers of high-tech equipments and gadgets, used to run these tests, benefit from the woes of future parents and their unborn child. Many hospitals are known to sign long term contracts with the firms involved in the production of these types of medical machinery. Often, a healthy percentage of the profit is shared with the hospital and both parties enjoy the fruits of rewarding a death sentence

9. Increase in Rape and Assault: Once women become an endangered species, it is only a matter of time before the instances of rape, assault and violence become widespread. In the backdrop of fewer available females, the surviving ones will be faced with the reality of handling a society driven by a testosterone high. The legal system may offer protection, but as is the situation today, many cases might not even surface for fear of isolation and humiliation on the girl’s part.

10. Dowary system : The tradition of paying dowry at the time of a daughter’s marriage is alive and kicking. This amount can be so huge that many parents will go to extreme lengths to avoid having a daughter in the first place. Religion operates alongside other cultural and economic factors in lowering the status of women. In the majority of cases, the legal system has no impact on the practice of dowry. It is estimated that a dowry death occurs in India every 93 minutes. The need for a dowry for girl children, and the ability to demand a dowry for boys exerts considerable economic pressure on families to use any means to avoid having girls, who are seen as a liability.

12. Illiteracy: Illiteracy is the second most important problem. Female literacy rates are very low nationally. A look at the statistics relating to female literacy reveals a grim picture. Comparing these rates to male literacy is 63.68%, it is clear that female literacy is neglected. This gap ultimately contributes to the subordination of women and greater dowry for demand in the marriage market. Rajasthan, which has a very low female literacy rate, is still burdened with widespread practices like sati, female foeticide and child-marriage. On the other hand, Kerala, which has a high female literacy rate, is almost devoid of all these practices except the practice of dowry.

Third Obj:- To study of impact of female foeticidehave on the sex ratio 

Sex ratio refers to ratio of females to males in a given region. Practices like female foeticide and female infanticide (killing a baby girl after she is born) have had an adverse effect on the sex ratio of a nation and gives rise to further social evils.

According to the decennial Indian census, the sex ratio in the 0-6 age group in India went from 104.0 males per 100 females in 1981, to 105.8 in 1991, to 107.8 in 2001, to 109.4 in 2011. The ratio is significantly higher in certain states such as Punjab and Haryana (126.1 and 122.0, as of 2001)


Sex ratio ( 0-6 age group in India)


104.0 per 100 males







As per the Indian Census 2011 report, the sex ratio of India (females per 1000 males) is as follows:

Average India sex ratio – 933

Rural sex ratio – 946

Urban sex ratio – 900

State with highest female sex ratio – Kerala – 1058

State with lowest female sex ratio – Haryana – 861 [3] 

The sex ratios of some countries are listed below: [4] 

Country Name

Sex Ratio



South Korea








Sri Lanka:


Findings and Suggestions:

Laws have been passed declaring female foeticideas illegal. Advertising for prenatal prediction of sex has also been declared illegal. Efforts should be made to implement these laws effectively. Strict punishment should be given to the defaulters. Efforts and provisions should be made to provide social security to parents who are above 65 years of age and have only daughters.

Girl children should be provided free and compulsory education up to higher secondary level. This would decrease the so-called “unnecessary investment on girl children” made by the parents on their daughters.

Certain schemes should be started for providing economic provisions for the female children. For this purpose, government should start various employment schemes for females where 100% reservation could be made for women in occupations like teaching, nursing, as telephone operators etc.

Women’s right to own and inherit property and the social obligation of daughters to support parents in the same way as sons, can be spread by policy intervention to inculcate these new values in households as well as legal support to implement these values should be provided.

Religious education can play a role by preaching against female foeticide, dowry and discrimination against the girl children.

Moral education should be imparted in schools. Children should be taught to uphold morals and refrain from practices of dowry, female foeticide, gender bias. The vulnerable minds of the children should be so influenced that they grow up as adults who consider practicing dowry and femalefoeticideas immoral.

Women should also be socialized from early childhood to consider themselves as equal to men. This would be a positive influence on the coming generations as today’s girl child would be tomorrow’s mother as well as mother in-law.

The Advisory Committee provides expert and technical support to the Appropriate Authority. Contravening the provisions of the Act can lead to a fine of Rs 10,000 and up to three years imprisonment for a first offence, with greater fines and longer terms of imprisonment for repeat offenders. The Appropriate Authority informs the central or state medical council to take action against medical professionals, leading to suspension or the striking off of practitioners found guilty of contravening the provisions of the Act.

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The trend of taking and giving of dowry which takes place mostly in educated and upper class homes cannot be discouraged by laws alone. It is entrenched in the mindset of India’s people and no amount of preaching would stop it. However efforts should continue to be made at the individual as well as at the government level. Stringent and effective laws should be supported by speedy trials, dowry giving and taking cases should be tried by a special court and short stay homes should be set up for battered women.

Cancellation/permanent termination of the doctor’s license who partakes in fulfilling a client’s demand to do away with her girl child.Heavy penalty imposed on companies like GE, that specialize in marketing medical equipments used for illegal sex determination and abortion in unlicensed clinics and hospitals.

High fines and judicial action against ‘parents’ who knowingly try to kill their unborn baby.

Widespread campaigns and seminars for young adults and potential parents to enlighten them about the ill effects of female feticide. Ignorance is one of the major causes for the increase in the selective sex abortion cases. Spreading awareness can go a long way in saving our future sisters, mothers, girlfriends and wives.for ex- satya mav jayate by Amir Khan on TV.

Girl children should be provided free and compulsory education up to higher secondary level. This would decrease the so-called “unnecessary investment on girl children” made by the parents on their daughters. They would stop taking their daughters as a liability, which many respondents taken for the study did grumble about.

Women’s right to own and inherit property and the social obligation of daughters to support parents in the same way as sons, can be spread by policy intervention to inculcate these new values in households as well as legal support to implement these values should be provided.

The Ministry of Women and Child Welfare should dispatch congratulatory greetings to couples who attain parenthood with the birth of a girl child. Many respondents in the study felt shame and embarrassment about having many daughters. The government by dispatching such greetings could spread awareness that the birth of a girl is a joyous occasion and would instill confidence in the mother who usually finds herself at the receiving end whenever a girl child is born.

The first and foremost thing is to ensure strict implication of existing legislation. Apart from this more of public awareness is required with a purely scientific and humanist approach. Every individual and NGO can also make their contributions to educate the public on this matter and strengthen the status of women in the society. . [5] 


Future is the name of your girl child, past is the name of your mother. This is truth that NO PRESENT, NO PAST, NO FUTURE WITHOUT GIRL CHILD. Female foeticideis suicide, Save the girl child and insure the future. The impact on society is very dangerous, we should not be underestimated. These are the dangerous consequences of the female feticide which are such as. more women are likely to be exploited as sex workers, Increases in molestations and rape are an obvious result. You can see sex crimes in Delhi have been attributed to the unequal sex ratio. Demographers warn the India that in the next twenty years there will be a shortage of brides in the marriage market mainly because of the adverse sex ratio. We want to complete my article with very beautiful line:-

“Kaliyo Ko Khil Jaane Do,

Mitthi Khushboo Phalane Do.

Band Karo Hatya Ab Inkiiiiii,

Jeevan Jyoth Jalane Do.”


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