Public Service Announcement is a free of charge message which act like an advertisement. It is used by a Non-Profit Organization or groups to promote event. PSA can be produced in audio, video, and even written form such as television station, radios and newspapers. Generally, the function of PSA in television station and radio station is similar. It must be short, straight to the point and professionally produced. In order to let the public understand the messages delivered, the PSA usually focus on only single idea as making it as clear as understandable. The high exposure of PSA to the public, and capture high attention deserved to have greatest impact (Wisconsin, n.d.). The purpose of PSA’s messages is to disseminate to the targeted audiences in order to serve public interest, increase awareness and educate the people (Wilcox & Cameron, 2009).
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“Domestic violence is an abuse of power. It is when one partner, usually a boyfriend or husband, attempts to control and dominate the other, usually a girlfriend or wife through violence, threat of violence, or by controlling the couple’s finances and social life”. There is some evidence shown that 39% of Malaysian women have been abused or assaulted by their partners. Domestic violence is a major, but regularly hidden social problem (WAO, 2012).
These are five types of domestic violence such as psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, economic abuse, and emotional abuse (What is psychological abuse, n.d.). The causes of domestic violence include individual factors, environmental factors, social factors, and economic factors (Causes of domestic violence, 2012). First, the effects of psychological abuse in domestic violence consist of attempts to commit suicide and difficult on concentrating (The effect of psychological abuse, n.d.). Second, the effects of physical abuse in domestic violence consist of anxiety, hearing and vision loss (Side effects of physical abuse, 2012). Third, the effects of sexual abuse in domestic violence consist of depression and shameful (Sexual abuse effect, 2008). Forth, the effects of economic abuse in domestic violence consist of stolen and loss of beloved one asserts through stealing (The impact of financial abuse, 2012). Fifth, the emotional abuse in domestic violence consists of feeling of insecure and often silent (Gluck, 2012).
In Malaysia context, domestic violence is legally bound to Malaysia Domestic Act (DVA) 1994 (act 521). It is an act which provided legal protection over any situation of domestic violence. DVA included the following situation:
Willfully or knowingly placing, or attempting to place, the victim in fear of physical injury. Example, anyone who make someone having a physical injured by purposely. As in physical harm caused to another is an assault. It could be domestic violence.
Causing physical injury to the victim by such act which is known or ought to have been known would result in physical injury. Example, using any weapon to beat someone injury.
Compelling the victim by force or threat to engage in any conduct or act, sexual or otherwise, from which the victim has right to abstain. Example, anyone who causes a victim in physical or mentally injured, like forcing some to become a prostitute.
confining or detaining the victim against the victim’s will; or Causing mischief or destruction or damage to property with intent to cause or knowing that it is likely to cause distress or annoyance to the victim. Example: economic abuse. Force someone to withholding about family running up bills for which the victim is responsible for payment (Malaysia domestic violence act, 2006).
Many women have been abused by her spouse, and it is not easy for abusive relationship, probably they will still hope that things will change. Some of them are afraid of their partner’s action she is trying to leave. No matter how you encouraged them, the victims are still feeling helpless. In order to help them to leave the abusive relationship, there are so many non-governmental organizations which trying to help the victims. Some of the solutions includes one’s can call advice; shelters where one’s can stay; job training, legal services, and childcare (Smith & Segal, 2012).
There are several Non-Government Organizations (NGO) and Non-Profit Organization (NPO) that try to help the women and in their effort to reduce the rapidly occurring domestic violence cases. One of the highly profile NGO in Malaysia has deals with women issues is Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO). WAO was established in 1979 and it was the first NPO refuge for abused women. The services that provided include face to face and telephone counseling, child care Centre, refuge and WAO Centre. Their vision is to create a society that is free of violence against women. WAO’s mission is to promote and create respect, protection and fulfillment of equal rights for women and to work towards the elimination of discrimination against women, and to bring about equality between women and men (WAO, 2012).
1.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
To find out the perception of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) students about radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) in Malaysia.
To know the effectiveness of radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) in portraying the issue on domestic violence.
1.2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How effective is radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) in Malaysia among university students?
How does radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) provides information on preventive measures against domestic violence against women?
1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
There is a positive relationship between student’s perceptions about radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) in getting information.
There is a positive relationship between the effectiveness of radio Public Services Announcement (PSA) in disseminating the issue of domestic violence.
1.4. SCOPE OF STUDY
Malaysia is a democratic country which emphasizes the fair, harmony and education to Malaysian. Therefore, the students in Malaysia are well educated and are able to transform the traditional concept to a modernization. Therefore, the universities students are knowledgeable and can be key person to analyzed and correct the problems. This study was conducted by 250 students of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) with the ration of female and male to find out the perception of UTAR student towards the effectiveness of radio PSA on domestic violence. These respondents are knowledgeable and mature enough to respond the survey in this study.
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1.5. SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This study is aimed to find out the perception of Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) students about radio PSA in Malaysia; to know the effectiveness of radio PSA in portraying the issue on domestic violence. Cases of domestic violence in Malaysia are on the rise, this study with the motivation of contributing to the society in regards to domestic violence. For instances, the government and organization may enhance the policies such as improving the Malaysia Domestic Act (DVA) 1994 (act 521) is an act which provided for legal protection over any situation of domestic violence. Also, the organization will more easily to understand the limitation and improve the ways of disseminating the message to the public. Again here, the improved policy implication will help to decrease the case of domestic violence and more protect the victims of domestic violence.
1.6. PROBLEM STATEMENT
This research aim to find out the effectiveness of radio Public Service Announcement (PSA) in portraying the issue of domestic violence: A study of Its Effectiveness among Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) students. The information gathered in this survey would help researchers to identify the perception of the students towards radio PSA and domestic violence. Domestic violence against women is one of the serious problem occurred in Malaysia. Domestic violence is also called as domestic abuse; it is usually happened around the people especially in a close relationship (Ang et al., 2010). According to Women’s Aid Organization (WAO) annual statistics 2010, the statistics has shown that 70.4% of the women have been abuse by domestic violence in Malaysia. In fact, the type of domestic violence has included psychological, physical, sexual, economic, and emotional (Ang et al., 2010).
According to Nielsen (2012), Malaysia is still prominent in radio time expended with 21 hours a week for Asia Pacific region. In fact, it is also getting out to 92% listeners weekly again radio remains to be among the most popular and trendy medium or channel for Malaysia. There are many Non-Government Organization (NGO) such as Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO) and Women Centre for Change (WCC) Penang, is a formerly Women’s Crisis Centre, All Women’s Action Society (AWAM), National Council of Women’s Organizations (NCWO), and People’s Service Organization (Organizations addressing vaw, 2001). They are trying to solve the problem for the women being abused and also provided different kind of PSA for the public to aware of it. For instance, radio PSA by the WAO. There are “Neighbours”, “Office”, and “Stalls”. All in them are English version with 40 seconds, 41 seconds, and 40 seconds. Another example will be United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Malaysia partnering Media Prima Group through Malay and English radio stations such as Hot.fm and Fly.fm in year 2008 using radio PSA for violence against children (Radio networks join in to denounce violence against children, 2008).
“Take Back The Tech!” campaign which began on 25 November, International Day Against Violence Against Women and reach over a period of 16 days ending on 10 December, International Human Rights Day (Ang et al., 2009). It was introduced and Planned by the Association for Progressive Communications, Women’s Networking Support Programme (APC WNSP) (Ang et al., 2009). The talks and trainings which in press interview included Bernama Radio VAW via radio, Radio 24: The Hot Seat on Violence against Women via Radio, Traxx FM: Violence against Women, and BFM which is the business radio station: The bigger picture on 16 Days of Activism (Ang et al., 2009). The purpose is to motivate the Malaysians to voice up against violence and raise awareness in order to construct the organization for a long-standing commitment in the society (Radio networks join in to denounce violence against children, 2008). Even with PSA women violence still happened (Ang et al., 2009).
Besides, the government also determines to protect women from domestic violence with the new law and eventually Domestic Violence Act 1994 launched on 1st June 1996 which is done by after eleven years of research (WAO, 2012). According to Minister Fatimah Sahin, all women deserved protection against violence, and the purpose of the new law is to protect women, family members from violence apparently (WAO, 2012).
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