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Sampling Strategies Are Identified Sociology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 5409 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Tikanga refers to the correct way of doing things. It refers to how researchers enter the research community, negotiate their study and methodology, conduct themselves as a researcher and as an individual, and engage with the people requires a wide range of cultural skills and sensitivities. Researchers have to be respectful and culturally appropriate when engaging with indigenous communities.

2. Kawa

Kawa refers to primary values or protocols such as working with Maori health providers. Maori committees who have iwi and Hapu reps. This group can support the research through: Tika, checking the research design; Manaakitanga, advising about cultural and social matters; Mann, ensuring justice and equity for Maori and support with participants.

3. Quota

A quota sample is conveniently selected according to pre-specified characteristics specific to the research topic. Characteristics may be according to age, gender, profession, diagnosis, ethnicity and so forth. For instance, a quota sample may be selected according to the comment as 30 Maori females and 20 Maori males diabetes whose age is from 35 to 55 in a group.

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1.2 sampling strategies are validated in accordance with kaupapa Maori

Maori on diabetes

For this research, the topic of the research is for the death rates due to diabetes of Maori aged 45 to 64 years old. The simple will be selected from Maori health; diabetes is almost three times more common in Maori than non-Maori. Those kind of research can show the actuality of Maori health, provide the information of Maori health, support the evidence and statistics, make more people to notice this status and encourage relevant department to take action to make those people health. That also can be a long term improvement for Maori people health. For example, after research, people may know the needs of Maori people. It may help to amend the law or policy to give a long-term benefit for Maori people.

For the benefit of Maori people, they can find wellness-balance of hinegaro, tinana, wairua and whanau for Maori people. Also it can improve access to health service. In this case, Maori people can be taken care by some medical department or organisation. Those department or organisation may assist Maori people taking some prevention, maintaining normal glycaemia and providing some services for screening and early diagnosis. For instance Ngati Porou Hauora (NPH) on the East Coast is implementing a programme called Ngati and Healthy, aimed at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by promoting a lifestyle characterized by healthy eating and regular exercise.

In the research, Maori people may play many roles such as researchers, participators or advisors. Of course, Maori researcher also can be a leader researcher in the team. Because they are as Maori people who have the knowledge and the cultural background, they may more clearly notice about what the problem is, the view of the research, how to find the incisive point to start and who can provide the information. They are more likely to give a direction for whole researcher team. The must be a great leader for this kind of research. The Maori participators can get all the benefit for Maori people which the research will make. Also they can get some financial income for working or providing information. The non-Maori participators also can gain an opportunity to acquaint Maori cultural with the research.

2.1 sampling strategies are implemented in accordance with kaupapa Maori

1) Quota sampling

Quota sampling is a method to select the survey participants. In quota sampling, the population is first divided into mutually exclusive subgroups. And judgment to select the subjects or units of each segment based on the specified ratio. For example, the interviewer may tell sample 50 female of Maori diabetes and 30 male Maori diabetes between the ages of 45 and 60. This means that individuals can put a demand on who they want to sample.

The selected sample is non-random sampling in quota sampling, and can be unreliable. For example, the interviewer may be tempted to interview those people who in a hospital where looks most helpful, or may choose to use or accidental sampling question those who closest to them, for time-keeping sake. The problem is that these samples may be biased because not everyone has the opportunity to be selected.

2) Random sample

Random sampling is a random selection of individuals from a subset of the population. Because researchers are often unable to get the data from each individual in a small part of the population which is randomly selected to be representative of the entire group as a whole. Our goal is to obtain a sample which can represent the larger population. Subjects in the population are sampled by a random process, using either a random number generator or a random number table, so that each person remaining in the population has the same probability of being selected for the sample.

3) Stratified random sampling

Stratified sampling is a sampling technology in which the researcher separate the entire target population into different groups, or levels, and then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different level. Using this type of sampling, the researchers want to highlight specific subgroups within the population. For example, to get diabetes stratified sampling of Maori, the researcher would first organise the population by age group and then select appropriate numbers of 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to 50 and 50 to 60. This ensures that the researcher has adequate amounts of subjects from each age gap in the final sample.

2.2 sampling strategies are implemented in accordance with local iwi or hapu requirements

1. The researcher should try to develop a cooperative working relationship with local iwi and Hapu, for example, take some food or financial reward to share with people who participates in the research and whanau.

2. Maori culture should be respected by researcher during the period of research. Researcher should use the material carefully which is from the participants. Make sure using them correctly and appropriately.

3. After all the researches are finished, the researcher should inform the participants and whanau what has been chosen and written in the report and ask the permitting for using those information in the report.

3.1 the impact of colonisation on hauora at regional and national levels is analysed in accordance with cultural customs

Maori Regional

Tahoe traditional lands is in Te Urewera ( Te Urewera National Park) of the eastern North Island, a steep, heavily-forested area where includes Lake Waikaremoana. Tahoe traditionally relied on the forest to get their needs. The tribe had its main population center in the small mountain valleys of Ahikereru and Ruatahuna, with Maungapohatu, the inner sanctum of the Urewera, as their seared mountain. The Tahoe country had a great reputation among the neighbouring tribes as a graveyard for invading forces. After 1864, Tahoe lost 5700ha of land on its northern border from a total of 181,000ha of land confiscated by the Grey government from Tahoe, Te Whakatohea and Ngati Awa. The Crown took Tahoe’s only substantial flat, fertile land and their only access to the coast. The Tahoe people retained only harsh, more difficult land, setting the scene for later famines.

Maori National

The influx of settlers led to a demand of land, and since the 1840s Maori were under great pressure to sell their ancestral territories. Loss of Maori land – through expropriation after the 1860s wars, Crown purchase and the Native Land Court – led to the displacement of large numbers of Maori Their land and tribes were deprived and in many cases reduced poverty, there is no choice,but live in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Loss of land, they also lost their traditional food sources. Due to lack of resources, overcrowding and poor diet which can help to maintain and spread the disease.. In New Zealand, diabetes is almost three times more common in Maori than non-Maori. In addition, for Maori aged 45-64 years death rates due to diabetes are nine times higher than for non Maori New Zealanders of the same age. Maori are diagnosed younger and are more likely to develop diabetic complications such as eye disease, kidney failure, strokes and heart disease.

Other indigenous

Canada aborigine Regional

The legacy of colonial rule, is not only false history, a distorted image or racist attitudes. This is fundamentally the loss of land and resources. It also forced them to take action. Contemporary conflict Caledonia, Burnt Church, Gustafson Lake, Ipperwash and Oka are indications that the indigenous people trying to save their land and resources, so that they can have some self-determine their identity for present and future generationswhat is left.

Canada Aborigine National

Indigenous peoples suffered the loss of land alienation, poverty and industrial pollution. Also racism is deadly. Indigenous youth suicide 6 times the national average, and countless people died in a racially motivated murder. Many Canadians still do not know or indifferent to the history, racism and nature of colonizationl. Canadians do not deal with racism, effective or always sympathetic. Many people continue to deny the existence of racism, accusing their social and economic marginalization of the indigenous people.

3.2 the impact of colonisation on the cultural base and the effects these have on health are analysed in accordance with cultural customs


Colonisation by European had a significant effect on traditional Maori healing. Tohunga had limited ability to combat the diseases brought by Europeans. Though Western medicine was also relatively ineffectual at the time, this failure still strongly affected Maori confidence in Tohunga.


By 1903, the new Inspector of native schools saw no reason for any delay in using English and imposed a ban on the use of Maori in school, aiming the implement the Direct Method for the teaching of foreign languages. These assimilation languages polices were a major factor in the Development of bilingualism and the growing status of English. Maori was only permitted back into the school curriculum as an optional subject in 1909. By 1953, some 40 years later, the assimilationist policies of government had certainly exceeded expectations. Only twenty six percent of Maori school children could speak te reo Maori. New generation may feel difficult when they inherit culture from old generations, which part used to be thought by Maori language such as tohunga.


Through urbanisation, Maori suffered as those who migrated to the cities left behind not only their extended family unit, but also their tribal support of customs, culture and language. Maori families who moved from a rural setting into urban centres were not permitted to live together in Maori communities, as they had done in rural areas.

Spiritual health

In the early 1900’s the military outlawing of Maori spirituality and healing came into effect with the Christianity implement in New Zealand. Tohunga the law banning strength to stay in more than 60 years of age and Maori health and spiritual decline since then, has a serious impact on the cultural, spiritual, psychological, physical and psychological well-being of indigenous people in this land. The public health system continues to refuse to New Zealand Maori traditional spirit of the effectiveness of the treatment services phenomenon is because there is no scientific evidence. Instead, the Maori signed as a western service provide the same services, but with brown, even in the face of the current system is not working in place of Maori. Maori health is a serious decline, and statistics is expected to rise.

Psychological health

Psychological causes for social problems were first identified around the 1920s and attention turned to the place of the child in the family. Traumatic family relationships or a lack of family affection could all lead to child abuse or neglect. The high level of abuse of Maori children was noted but largely unexplained in the 1960s. The Maori ‘renaissance’ of the 1980s led to culturally-based explanations for abuse, including racism and the effects of colonisation.

Physical health

In the 1890s the Maori population had fallen to about 40% of its pre-contact size. Decline accelerated after the Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840 and settlers began to arrive in greater numbers. This influx of people exposed Maori to new disease, leading to severe epidemics. Newly introduced illnesses that were common in Europe such as measles, mumps and whooping cough, took a terrible toll among Maori, who had no immunity to them. Introduced respiratory diseases, particularly bronchitis and tuberculosis, also killed large numbers of Maori in the 19th century.

Other indigenous (Australia aborigine)


When the white settlers came, the Aborigines were dispossessed of their land and, much later, “encouraged” onto reserves, supposedly for their protection. They were forced off their traditional hunting grounds, and certainly herded away from the fertile coastal areas where there was plenty of food. White settlers wrecked the very effective native fishing traps, cleared native habitats and reduced the native food supplies, as well as polluting their water. And under several federal and state programmes that continued into the 1970s, the government forcibly removed Aboriginal children from their families and sent them to white families and church-run institutions for cultural reprogramming.


When indigenous children were taken from their families by force, which led directly to cause the loss of Aboriginal culture, language, customs and traditions. When Europeans first came to Australia, there are about 250 different indigenous languages in Australia. There is now a small part of this figure. Many stories from the Aboriginal dream (creation legends) disappear forever.


When Europeans began to improve the stock at the ranch some changes took place. Many indigenous people have lost their land. Spread in the vast area, the European livestock industry is also restricted in the way of life of the indigenous people. A new supply of fresh meat from the ranch, the indigenous people, thus changing their nutrition, their eating habits and the way in search of food. Therefore, the indigenous people began to rely on their food and livelihoods of the European colonizers.

Spiritual health

The reason most Indigenous people endure unhappy and unhealthy lives has nothing to do with government powers or money. The lack of these things only contributes to making a bad situation worse. The root of the problem is that we are living anomie, a form of spiritual crisis, caused by historical trauma that has generated an “Aboriginal” legal-economic response that is not authentic and is designed by non-indigenous people to serve the interests of the colonial regime and capitalism.

Psychological health

In particular, Indigenous men’s difficulties in comprehending and dealing effectively with the source of their own disempowerment has led to a compounding of the problem for Indigenous women and children, who are frequently the targets of men’s raging manifestations of internalized self-hatred. This problem exists in various forms and intensities across the entire economic and social spectrum in Aboriginal, and in spite of other recent politico-legal advances in the empowerment of Aboriginals enterprises and governments. Women express colonised mind sets as well, but mainly through self-destructive behaviour. Men tend to channel their rage externally, and as a consequence gendered violence has become endemic within aboriginal communities.

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Physical health

Europeans also introduced foods and diseases, all of which are completely harmless white settlers, but reduce the life expectancy of indigenous people. Simple disease, such as measles, influenza, aboriginal peoples had a devastating impact. Wheat and sugar-containing foods indigenous Australians lead to heart disease and obesity. Europeans introduced the the new flora and fauna which took over local habitat, and leading to eliminate many plants and animals in the place where the aborigines relied on.

3.3 contemporary issues affecting hauora as a result of the colonisation process are analysed in accordance with cultural customs.


1. In recent years, New Zealand has made significant progress in promoting the rights of Maori and address concerns. The New Zealand’s expression of support for the declaration of United Nations on indigenous peoples’ rights , its steps to repeal and reform of the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004, efforts to carry out the process of constitutional review issues related to Maori.

2. With respect to Treaty settlement negotiations, the government should make every effort so that all groups which have an interest in the matter under consideration. In addition, the Maori Treaty reconciliation in consultation with Maori, the Government should explore and develop the means to solve the negotiation process, especially between Maori and the imbalance between the powers of the government negotiators.

3. Further efforts to promote the rights of Maori – should consolidate and strengthen. The necessity of the principles laid down in the Waitangi and international – New Zealand within the domestic legal system of the Treaty on the protection of human rights, therefore, that these rights are not easy to violations of political discretion addition, the new Marine and Coastal Area Bill should be consistent with international standards, the rights of indigenous peoples with their traditional lands and resources.

Other indigenous (Plain Cree, Canada)

1. Recognising that thunder child is only one of many First Nation communities, this project is only a beginning step toward understanding Aboriginal peoples, specifically the Plains Cree, perspective of health. The insights gathered from their perspectives, identifying their current perception of health, health practices, health concerns, and perceived barriers to obtaining optimal health are essential, if not critical, to plan effective health promotion.

2. The Public health Agency of Canada (PHAC) (2003) lists the following as key determinants of health: Income and social status; Social support networks; Education and literacy; Employment/working condition; Social Environments; Physical environments; Personal health practices and coping skills; healthy child development; Biology and genetics endowment; Health services; Gender; Culture.

One of the drivers of this study was that the primary researcher wondered whether the Social Determinants of Health were reflective of and an appropriate framework for addressing Aboriginal health concerns.

3. Using the determinants of health and the principles of the Canada Health Act would suggest that these disparities need to be addressed and the accessibility of health care to be more equitable across all Canadian populations.

4.1 conclusions about the impacts of colonisation on the hauora of the indigenous people are drawn and substantiated in accordance with the analysis


indigenous people who had been colonized have the right to establish and control their chosen education system. It should be ina manner appropriate to their cultral methods of learning. Everyone, especially children should be given equal right to all forms of education. Since education is in the the development of an individual. After colonization the education moved to British system, children went to school which provided by government and taught in English,

During the past 20 years educational qualifications have become an increasingly critical determinant of employment and occupational status. Programmes such as te kotahi tanga have been developed to mitigate the inequitable teaching provided to Maori students for many decades and lift the teacher performance and engagement with Maori students. However, such programmes are not yet widespread and recent statistics show that too many schools are still failing to provide high quality education to Maori children. The three wananga, Te Wanaga o Raukawa, Te Wananga o Awanuiarangi and Te Wananga o Aotearua, have been critical in providing Maori controlled and Maori medium tertiary education and stair casing Maori students to higher education.. Nevertheless, failure of the school system to perform equitably for Maori transfers the cost of attaining an education onto Maori. The lifetime cost of obtaining an education is thus disproportionately higher on average for Maori. The right to health cannot be realized if structural inequities in the presence of social, economic, environmental and political determinants of health exist.

Urban migration

There is a policy for migration in Maori society that if Maori families moves from a rural setting in to urban centres, then they are not permitted to live together in Maori communities, as they had done in rural areas. Instead, houses were found for them in mainly Pakeha neighbourhoods, giving little possibility for them to speak te reo Maori, this government policy was referred to as ‘pepper potting’ the pepper potting policy of the government provided assurance of linguistic dominance for the English language.


Unemployment rates for Maori have decreased from 2001 to 2007 but remain three times higher than that of Pakeha aged 15 years and over, and similar to that of the pacific population. Unemployment and redundancy are associated with poorer health outcomes. There are evidences that Maori face discrimination in the labour market- in getting a job, in the type of job obtained, and the wages paid for a particular type of work.


For the safety, well secured high quality housing is an important determinant of good Health. There are lots of differences between quality housing for Maori and non-Maori in New Zealand and there are some major problems. For example, discrimination in renting or buying a house was the most frequent type of ‘unfair treatment’ discrimination reported by Maori in the 2002 to 2003 New Zealand Health Survey. However it was hard to solve the problem because Maori has a bit different lifestyle on housing. The Ministry of Women’s Affairs identified that “Maori are more likely to be in rental or temporary accommodation, and to be living in crowded housing environments than non-Maori”. Housing discrimination was significantly associated with a higher risk of smoking and poor mental health.

Other indigenous


In early childhood education, poverty youth are failing behind more than privileged youth in the school. However, consideration must be given to Aboriginal youth who experience the compounding effects of colonisation that goes beyond poverty-stricken communities to include addiction, diminished family ties, crime and violence, and suicide. These kind of factors greatly affects the potential for academic success. Aboriginal youth are disproportionately affected by poverty and Aboriginal students are getting lost in the school system. Studies reveal that 83% of non-Aboriginal youth are attending school, while only 63% of Aboriginal youth are attending.

Urban migration

The Canadian Council on Social Development reports that Aboriginal people in urban settings are more than twice as likely to live in poverty in comparison to non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people in Canada live in difficulty and impoverished conditions which is unimaginable to the average person in Canada.


In contrast to other Canadians high participation rate in the labour force, Aboriginal people are not likely participating. Also they are not likely to be employed in society. Aboriginal people are not employed well enough. Their level of unemployment is between two and three times higher than it is for other Canadians if they are in the labour force,


Overcrowding and lack of access to clean water and poor sanitation on reserve housing contributed to very high rates of infectious diseases. The lack of access to traditional foods weakened health further; diets became less varied, and healthy traditional staples were replaced by refined foods like flour and sugar, causing further deterioration in First nations’ health status and dependencies on government and health bureaucracies that continue to this day in all First Nation communities.

4.2 conclusions about the social status of the indigenous people resulting from colonisation, and its related impacts on hauora, are drawn and substantiated in accordance with the analysis


In New Zealand, ethnic inequalities between Maori and non-Maori are the most consistent and compelling inequities in health. Inequalities between the health status of Maori and other New Zealanders are well documented. Research confirms Maori are disproportionately represented in almost all negative health and social statistics and are, in general, poorer, sicker, and more socially deprived than non-Maori. Maori do not access primary care services as often as or as early as non-Maori and are not referred for secondary and tertiary procedures at the same rates as non-Maori. This concept of health equity focuses attention away from the individual and her or his health. Instead it monitors how resources including health services, are distributed to the community. This includes evaluation the processes that determine how resources are shared and the underlying values of society. It is impossible to understand Maori health status or intervene to improve it without understanding colonial history. Evidence repeatedly suggests that Maori are receiving lower levels of health services and poorer quality of service. If Maori are getting less, non-Maori are getting more. Unequal Maori health outcomes are often represented in terms of increased Maori health needs. It is more appropriate for people to frame Maori health needs as arising as a consequence of indigenous rights being breached.

Other indigenous

Over 550 American Indian tribes are currently recognized by the federal government. In addition, many other tribes are recognized only by state governments, and still others are working to obtain official governmental recognition. What we refer to as “colonialism” is actually a theoretical framework for understanding the complexities of the relationship that evolved between Indigenous peoples and Europeans as they came into contact and later sustained those initial relationships in building a new reality for both peoples in North America. Specifically, colonialism is the development of institutions and policies by European imperial and Euro American settler governments towards Indigenous peoples. Indigenous social sufferings are explained away through deflective strategies of denial, projection, or misappropriation. Health crises, racial discord, criminality, physical violence, and all other manner of conflict are attributable to strictly material causes or to dysfunctions within First Nations communities. Yet informed opinion on the matter is clear, as the most recent compendium of top-level medical and social science research on mental health issues in Indigenous populations confirms that it is not indigenous dysfunction that is the root problem, but the dispossession of Indigenous people from the land and their subsequent oppressive treatment on reserves in the Indian Act system and in residential schools, and through other government policies: Although it is difficult to prove a direct casual link, it is likely that the collective trauma, disorientation, less, and grief caused by these short-sighted and often self-serving policies are major determinants of the mental health problems faced by many Aboriginal communities and populations across Canada.

4.3 conclusions about underlying issues for the indigenous people attributable to colonisation, and which have impacted on their hauora, are drawn and substantiated in accordance with the analysis


Social structure

After colonization Maori social structure tended to change from extended family to single unit. Maori eventually lost their land and the financial support that went with it, so a large proportion of Maori migrated from rural to urban regions in search for work. Maori suffered in the cities, with high levels of unemployment, low socioeconomic status and living in poor housing conditions without access to the large gardens which were frequently grown in the past. The social structure of the Maori is closely related to their demographic position, their economic status, and their political relations in the New Zealand community. A minority group within the general population, showing differences of cultural interest from other New Zealanders and suffering at times from mild discrimination, the Maori people demonstrate considerable unity. Maori were unable to continue practicing many Maori cultures and customs, leading to a break-down of the Maori social structure, and some differences in their structure occur according to whether they are in urban or rural situations, and tend to be related also to their educational level. Moreover, in major respects the modern Maori are increasingly regarded by themselves and by their fellow citizens as New Zealanders who, descended from early inhabitants, participate in and contribute effectively to the community life of the country.

Political structure

Maori political structure influence many aspects of life. These may include the health, economic, and lifestyle. Maori politics have been dominated by the necessity of making terms with the way of life and European world. Although there are complicated problems for tribal differences and the land problems, Maori politics aften hinge on the social and economic aspects of this central problem. Maori Parliament movement, advocating a completely autonomous Maori race, flourished in the early 1890s, when it was considered The Maori Council members can not accept their views by the European Member. The Ratana group held the balance between 1957 and 1960. Maori arty which entered Parliament in 2004 has three members of Parliament and it has a confidence and supply arrangement with the Nation-led government. The party’s founding was an initiative of Maori for the benefit of all citizens of this land. It supports Maori people to achieve their aspirations for health and disability support. Also it also committed to reducing the health inequalities that exist between Maori and other New Zealanders through effective partnerships with Maori and active Maori involvement in the sector. DHBs will be the key agents in achieving these aspirations.


Religion is an important source of values and education. “Maori spirituality is that body of practice and belief that gives the spirit (wairua) to allthings Maori. It includes prayer and spirit.

Certain practices are followed and relate to traditional concepts like tapu. Certain people and objects include mana – spiritual power or essence. In earlier times, tribal members raised higher rankings that do not have to touch the object which belongs to a member of the lower ranks. This was considered to be the “pollution” and those of lower ranks can not touch the belongings of a highborn people, without put themselves under the risk of death.

Tapu can be interp


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