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Sociological Areas Of Criminology Sociology Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Sociology
Wordcount: 1338 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Before discussing the social areas of crime. We have to understand what crime is? “if any body breaks the criminal laws it may be defined as crime.” (sociology making..,2009,page- 556) “In sociological aspect of crime sociologists believe that crime cannot be properly understood without examining the surrounding social, political and economical context” (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-sociological-criminology.htm). The sociological areas of studying crime is really massive. Sometimes the criminals may be caught and sometimes they may not. Some criminals use to advertise themselves and some keep silence. The numbers of crime is always high than the numbers shown. Sociological study of crime is basically the case study of those criminals who breaks the rules of society and not advertise themselves because ht behaviour is always much problematic and painful. The study of crime is always tough because the researchers need to find the subject. In sociological approach the study depends on the way which highlights that how anyone does crime. What social conditions compailed the person to do a crime and be a criminal. Sociological criminology seeks to explain crime`s relationship to social and environmental change. Another area of social criminology is based on marxism theory. It highlights that crime is ultimately the result of conflict between different social classes. This theory believes that basically “laws are made by the group that is in power, to control people who are not in power. “This is conflict theory of crime or critical criminology. Another sociological areas of criminology is social process criminology which explain that how people criminals. In this study basic focus is on criminal behaviour as learned behaviour. So, we can say that in sociological areas of criminology we emphasis on social situations responsible for crime. (sociology making..,2009,page- 557)

Sociological areas of family

Family is the strongest bond of society. It is the main institution of society which is found within the households. Family always changes across time and place and its a social construction. (mckie et al,2005,page- 445)

In sociology areas of family we study the various theoretical approaches to the family. Some sociological approaches of families are functionalist, feminist and new rights perspective. The functionalist theory of family is based on socialization. It emphasis that the family socialise its members and this socialisation is beneficial for both family and the society. Feminist approach is the study based on the position of a men within a patriarchal society. The new sight perspective is the study that how family teaches its members that what is wrong and what is right. Another sociological areas of family is the study of decline in family. This area is based on the study of social problems related with family. This study is mostly based on western society. First part of this area is based on family violence. Family is a good and peaceful place but according to this study family can be a dangerous place to be. This problem is mostly caused in nuclear family. Domestic violence is another social problem of family. Physical force applied on women and children caused by aggressiveness is the part of domestic violence. In simple words we can say that the sociological area of family describes both benefits and problems of the society caused by the family.

Sociological areas of media

Present age is the age of media. Media is unseparated part of today`s life. Most of the information we gathered from the media. In one hand media educates us and in other it is the real source of connecting people. Many types of media is present in today`s society like television, radio, newspaper, internet, etc. We can say that without media we cannot imagine the normal life. It is the accepted part of life. We spend our maximum part of time and money for using media. In (1998, brigs and cobley) extend his views to assert that “as we more into the new millenmium the media are increasingly a central part of our lives, our cultures and global economics.” (sociology making..,2009,page- 685)

Because of this mass effect media has vast sociological area. It shows a very effective role in society different writers analayse and identified the different aspects of media in society. (Mcquail ,1994) drawed a red sketch on media`s social areas. As (mcquail ,1994) described some important social areas of media is as follows:-


â- Media circulates the information about different conditions and events of world and society.

â- It indicates the relation of power.

â- Media facilitate the innovations, adaptions and progress.


â- Media explains, interprets and comments on the meaning of events and information.

â- Media provides support to established authority and norms.

â- Media does consensus building.

â- Media sets orders of priorities and signalling relative status.


â- Media expresses the dominant culture and recorganises subcultures and new cultural developments.

â- It forges and maintaines common values.


â- Media provides amusement, diversion and means of relaxation.

â- Media reduces social tension by the resource of entertainment.


â- Media campaigning for societal objectives in the sphere of polities, war, economic development, work and sometimes religion.

(Mcquail, 1994:79), (sociology making…, 2009, page-712)

In conclusion we can say that media has the power to change the attitudes and behaviour of society. Media is an important factor of socialization. Media influences on the individual, the group, the institution or culture in general.

Moral panics

In the words of (stanlay cohen, 1987) moral panic is “a condition, episode, person or group of persons became defined as a threat to societal values and interests.” (http://en.citizendium.org/moralpanic)

As (stanly cohen, 1987) described in his book (Folk devils and moral panics) some moral panics of society are:-

â- Young, working- class, violent males, youth culture and juvenile delinquency.

â- School violence.

â- Bad drugs, wrong drugs used by wrong people at wrong times.

â- Child abuse, sexual and satanic.

â- Sex, violence and blaming media.

â- Welfare cheats and single mothers.

â- Pornography.

â- Refuges and asylum seekers.


“The idea of moral panic was originally developed to explain the demonization of young people as a social problem and the scapegoating of certain subcultural groups in particular”. (sociology making..,2009,page- 735) Jock young used firstly the term moral panic to describe the impact upon public anxiety of creation of `drug squads` in 1960s. Then this concept borrowed by (Stan cohen, 1972) in his classic study of mods and rockers and their treatment by the media and the police in the early 1960s. Stanley cohen, 1972 showed in his work that how media intervention gave from to different subcultural groups and represented them as threatening `folk devil`. In nineteenth century the famous sociologist (person, 1983) used the idea of moral panic to explore the fears generated by the emergence of urban gangs. As (person, 1983) conclude cited in (Toynbee,1983) that “every era has its young gangs that catch the terrified imagination of the respectable. Every era also has its myth about a previous golden age of traditional values, a time when it was safer to walk the streets.” Intervention of media gives youth subcultures national exposure and degree of uniformity and definition. (sociology making…, 2009, page-734-735)


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