Consumption of supplements and energy drinks has become a norm among athletes now. However, there are different studies in support as well as against the energy drink consumption for athletes, on whether it has a positive effect on the performance or not.
The aim of this research was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull) on the performance difference levels in male athletes. Thirty male athletes were selected from different backgrounds to participate in this study.. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups; Group A (experimental) & Group B (non-experimental). Measurements of their running times were taken and the average was calculated. In the second session, group A was given an intake of 250 ml of Red Bull energy drink, while all the members of group B were not given any energy drink. The experiment was carried out again. The differences between the teams as well as between the two sessions were taken into account.
Although in recent years, athletes have improved their performance levels, they share the same quest with their historical counterparts: success and victory at the Olympic Games. So every time, very different methods were tried by athletes to achieve this aim.
In this way, consumption of energy drinks by athletes has become increasingly popular.
Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition due to their potentially ergogenic ingredients such as carbohydrates, caffeine, sodium and taurine, among others.
Energy drinks have become more and more popular since the late nineties. The manufactures claim that these drinks improve physical endurance, reaction speed and concentration. The main ingredients of energy drinks are caffeine, sugar, taurine and glucuronolactone. According to the manufacturers, the stimulating effects of these drinks are due to interaction between the various ingredients.
Sport drink consumption is recommended for most sports and not all of the sport
beverages are the same. They differ in type and concentration of carbohydrates, electrolytes, flavors and other constituents. Some simply replace carbohydrates and electrolytes; others provide added protein, specific amino acids, and even fat, while still others provide herbs, vitamins, and caffeine.
Energy or ‘power’ drinks (e.g., Battery, B52, Dark Dog, Jess, Red Bat, Red Bull, Rhino’s) are beverages designed and consumed for purposes other than for improving athletic performance: for instance, to reduce the depressant effects of alcohol on the central nervous system. On the other hand, sports and fluid-electrolyte replacement beverages (e.g., Gatorade, Powerade) are designed and consumed to enhance athletic performance or to reduce the deleterious effects of dehydration during athletic competitions (Carvajal- Sancho, Moncada- Jiménez, 2005).
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It should be noted that, although energy drinks have been sold worldwide for more than a decade, unfortunately only a few studies have apparently been published to test the effectiveness of these beverages on the physical or cognitive performance in athletes (Alford, Cox, & Wescott, 2001; Baum & Weib, 2001; Carvajal- Sancho & Moncada-Jiménez, 2005). So far, no data is available in regard to the effectiveness these beverages on anaerobic power and the delay of blood lactate accumulation.
Some scientific studies with similar topics will cited later on. Nevertheless, in most cases, their topics were not directly related to anaerobic power or delaying blood lactate accumulation.
Alford et al. (2001) investigating the effects of an energy drink (Red Bull) on psychomotor, anaerobic and aerobic performance (anaerobic performance was measured by a 20s cycle ergometer test), reported that the Red Bull group improved aerobic and anaerobic performance by 9% and 24%, respectively. Similarly, Carvajal- Sancho & Moncada- Jiménez (2005) studied the acute effect of an energy drink on physical performance (100 m sprint, hand dynamometer and standing long jump) and indicated no significant changes in physical and cognitive variables. In another research, the influence of a multivitamin/mineral supplement on anaerobic exercise performance (a 30-second cycle sprint test and one set of squat exercise) was studied by Fry et al. (2006) and a decreased rate of fatigue was noted for both exercise tests.
In addition, Olson and Seifert (2004) carried out a study to determine if consumption of a carbohydrate-protein drink could improve skating performance. The results showed that, in the experimental group, speed performance improved by 8% and reaction time improved by 12%. Kipp et al.(2003) also investigated the influence of a carbohydrate/protein sports drink on soccer sprint performance (four speed trials with 5 min of rest in between). In the carb-protein group, speed was improved between the first and last sprints by 1.1 seconds, while the other group slowed down by 2.2 seconds.
There are many types of energy drinks which can be purchased over the counter by everyone and their producers have claimed a variety of benefits in their advertisements.
In the case of an intensively working skeletal muscle, this means a delay in the fall in intramuscular pH to the critical level at which glycolysis is inhibited (OoÂ¨pik et al., 2003;
MacDougall et al., 1991). On the other hand, with regard to controversial reports about the effects of alkalinizing agents in the case of acute administration (Stout & Antonio, 2002; Aschenbach et al., 2000; Bishop et al., 2004; Marx et al., 2002; McNaughton et al., 1999; Ball and Maughan, 1997; Wilkes et al., 1983), it is unclear whether the consumption of energy drinks can have such effects.
Does the intake of Red Bull (energy drink) effect athletic performance of male athletes or not?
Energy drinks are believed and marketed in a way to show that they enhance mental and athletic performance. Therefore, the concern of our research has been to find out whether the ingredients of one of the most used energy drink (Red Bull) effect the metabolism of human body in such a way that there in an increase in the physical athletic performance or not.
Theoretical Frame Work
Uneven tracks, diseases to the athletes.
Uneven tracks can be a big factor which can be controlled by carefully selecting an even and smooth running track. While the intervening variable of diseases to the athletes can be taken care of in the athlete selection process. In the initial questionnaire results, the athletes with some serious health disorders can be filtered out.
The researcher intends to test the following hypothesis using their research:
Alternative Hypothesis (HA)
There is a relation between the intake of Red Bull with the athletic performance of male athletes.
Null Hypothesis (Ho)
There is no relation between the intake of Red Bull with the athletic performance of male athletes.
The Theoretical Framework
Performance of Athletes/Players
Intake of Red Bull
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
The name of the research methodology is non-manipulative as in our research we have control on our independent variables and it is a field experiment.
Participants: In order to be eligible to participate in the study, subjects had to
meet the following inclusion criteria which were obtained by means of a questionnaire:
a) to train/play for at least four days per week (approximately 30 min in each session);
b) not to be on medication or nutritional supplementation; and
c) not to consume energy drinks regularly.
Potential participants were excluded from the study if they:
a) presented psychiatric or neurological diseases;
b) were sensitive to any ingredient contained in the energy drink;
c) were under any nutritional supplementation regimen that included either caffeine, sugar, taurine and glucuronolactone;
e) had evident cardiac problems.
Thirty regular male football players (age: 24.34Â±1.74years, height: 183.26Â±7.66 cm, weight: 81.37Â±6.85 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The volunteers read and signed an informed consent form with a medical history questionnaire before beginning the study.
Then, the nature of the study was explained to the subjects, and they were given an opportunity to ask questions about anything that was unclear.
We used questionnaire as our research tool for the initial screening of athletes. While stethoscope and blood pressure sphingo-meter apparatus were used to measure the heartbeat and blood pressure respectively. A stop watch was used to note down the sprint timings.
Procedure: The aim of this research was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull) on the performance difference levels in male athletes. Thirty regular male athletes (soccer players) (age: 25.34Â±1.74years, height: 182.26Â±7.66 cm, weight: 78.37Â±6.85 kg and BF%: 13.2Â±2.7%) were selected from different backgrounds to participate in this study. This research was conducted on two separate sessions with four days of rest in between.
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Two experimental conditions were tested: a) control (no drink); b) energy drink. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups; Group A (experimental) & Group B (non-experimental). In the first session, both the groups were assigned to run on a 100m track without any liquid intake. Measurements of their running times were taken and the average was calculated. In the second session, group A was given an intake of 250 ml of Red Bull energy drink, while all the members of group B were not given any energy drink. The experiment was carried out again. The differences between the teams as well as between the two sessions were taken into account.
One week before the data collection took place. The participants were instructed on how to perform the whole experiment and underwent a familiarization session. The subjects were instructed to avoid alcohol, nicotine and other stimulants and also avoid strenuous activities and sudden changes in food consumption (including any nutritional supplementation products) the day before the experiment. In addition, they were asked to maintain regular physical activities during the days prior to the experiment, as recommended by Carvajal-Sancho and Moncada-Jiménez (2005). Moreover, they were asked to wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing and get an adequate amount of sleep (6 to 8 hours) the night before the test (Byars et al., 2006). The clothing, shoes, as well as all equipment used, were consistent for each subject and were recorded to establish controlled experimental conditions.
Apparatuses used in our study were stethoscope, blood pressure apparatus (sphino-meter), stop-watch, pen and paper. The heartbeat rate (bpm) was measured with the help of stethoscope, blood pressure with the help of blood pressure apparatus and the running time were measured by the stop watch.
The apparatus was duly checked by the hospital authorities and confirmed to be in valid functional conditions.
The results show that the group A, after the intake of Red Bull energy drink did show an almost negligible good performance, thus not supporting the hypothesis.
The experiments, apart from giving out the main results also gave some very interesting facts. For example; Group A (experimental) showed increase in the time to exhaustion, which is ultimately related to the ingredients of Red Bull.
Hence, we will select,
HA(alternative): There is a relation between the intake of Red Bull with the athletic performance of male athletes.
As it is clear to see the difference through the results. This proves that after the intake of Red Bull, the athletic performance increases.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Red Bull energy drink on the performance of male athletes. Results of this study indicated that ingestion of Red Bull prior to exercise testing is effective on the athletes’ performance.
In the present study it was observed that Red Bull energy drink caused an 11.78% decrease in the blood pressure and a 15.86% increase in the heartbeat rate (bpm).
The 100m sprint performance time in the group A(experimental group) showed improvement, even after repetitive attempts.
Potentially, caffeine could have a number of actions that affect skeletal and heart
muscle. It can increase sympathetic activity, and has direct intracellular action. The increase in heartbeat rate (bpm) may be attributed to ingredients such as caffeine,taurine, glucuronolacton. Caffeine has been shown to have desirable effects for performing
athletes fighting fatigue and increasing energy. The stimulant effect of caffeine could make it effective for increasing alertness while performing in a fatigued state. Taurine is also famous to aid in the contractile function of skeletal muscle and for providing increased ability of the muscle to contract, amplifying muscle force generation. In this study it was found that Red Bull energy drink caused up to 10.5% increase in time to exhaustion. However the previous researches and the current results, both support the fact that the ingestion of Red Bull energy drink does not have a significant enough impact on the performance of athletes, that it be strongly recommended to athletes for increased and better performance. No reports were identified of negative effects associated with the amount of taurine found in most energy drinks. Commonly reported adverse effects seen with caffeine in the quantities present in most energy drinks are insomnia, nervousness, headache, and tachycardia. Four documented case reports of caffeine-associated deaths were found, as well as four separate cases of seizures associated with the consumption of energy drinks.
First of all thanks to Allah Almighty who blessed me the strength and devotion to complete this research. I would thank my college fellow Adil Khan, who has helped me in the selection of the male athlete subjects. I would also like to thank Haider Behzad who helped me immensely with the research work. Moreover, I am also very thankful to all the people, who were part of the research and gave me their precious time. Without their help, it wouldn’t have been possible to complete this research project.
AND LAST BUT MOST IMPORTANTLY, I would like to thank my instructor, my mentor for the course, Mr. Humair Hashmi for pushing me forward, motivating me with his masterly tactics and enabling me to carry out the research in a professional manner.
The sample of the questionnaire is below;
KINDLY ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
MARK ONLY ONE OPTION IN THE SEGMENT OF ANSWERS
Q1> How many days do you exercise in a week?
Q2> Do you use any kind of drugs?
Q3> Your preference towards exercise/workout?
Q4> Do you carry any breathing disease or any major disease?
Q5> Do you use any kind of supplements?
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